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Recent hemodynamic imaging studies have shown that processing of low probability task-relevant target stimuli (i.e., oddballs) and low probability task-irrelevant novel stimuli elicit widespread activity in diverse, spatially distributed cortical and subcortical systems. The nature of this distributed response supports the model that processing of salient(More)
Functional connectivity of the brain has been studied by analyzing correlation differences in time courses among seed voxels or regions with other voxels of the brain in healthy individuals as well as in patients with brain disorders. The spatial extent of strongly temporally coherent brain regions co-activated during rest has also been examined using(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are often analyzed using the general linear model employing a hypothesized neural model convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Mismatches between this hemodynamic model and the data can be induced by spatially varying delays or slice-timing differences. It is common practice to desensitize the(More)
This study examined how the mutual interactions of functionally integrated neural networks during resting-state fMRI differed between adolescence and adulthood. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify functionally connected neural networks in 100 healthy participants aged 12-30 years. Hemodynamic timecourses that represented integrated(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is hypothesized to involve disordered connectivity between brain regions. Currently, there are no direct measures of brain connectivity; functional and structural connectivity used separately provide only limited insight. Simultaneous measure of anatomical and functional connectivity and its interactions allow for better(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social and communication processes. Recent data suggest that altered functional connectivity (FC), i.e. synchronous brain activity, might contribute to these deficits. Of specific interest is the FC integrity of the default mode network (DMN), a network active during passive resting states(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by diffuse brain abnormalities that affect many facets of cognitive function. One replicated finding in schizophrenia is abnormalities in the neural systems associated with processing salient stimuli in the context of oddball tasks. This deficit in the processing of salience stimuli might be(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reliably found reduced amplitude event-related potentials (ERPs) measuring attention-related brain function, indicating impairment in the brain's ability to automatically orient attention to odd or novel environmental stimuli and to represent that information in working memory.(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share overlapping symptoms and genetic etiology. Functional brain dysconnectivity is seen in both disorders. METHODS We compared 70 schizophrenia and 64 psychotic bipolar probands, their respective unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 70, and n = 52), and 118 healthy subjects, all group age-, gender-, and(More)
OBJECTIVES A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using a sample of 138 school-age children with autism. The objective was to examine (1) the characteristics of resulting subgroups, (2) the relationship of these subgroups to subgroups of the same children determined at preschool age, and (3) preschool variables that best predicted school-age(More)