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Ten cases are presented which illustrate aspects of the anatomy of the rubrospinal and central tegmental tracts in man. It is concluded that the number of large fibres arising from the magnocellular part of the red nucleus and constituting the classical rubrospinal tract is small and that only a few fibres project into the spinal cord; these cannot usually(More)
Clinical observations are presented on the sensory effects of lesions of different afferent pathways of the spinal cord, correlated whenever possible with histological evidence of the location and extent of the lesions. They are based on personal cases and on significant cases in the literature, including posterior column section, other causes of damage to(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown. Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115). We sequenced the exomes of 264 probands, and their parents,(More)
Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in childhood and associated with a generally poor prognosis for recovery of speech. It is thought to be the result of an epileptogenic lesion arising in speech cortex during a critical period of development. Utilizing a new surgical technique designed to eliminate the capacity of(More)
Trypanolytic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with kidney disease in African Americans, but whether APOL1-associated glomerular disease has a distinct clinical phenotype is unknown. Here we determined APOL1 genotypes for 271 African American cases, 168 European American cases, and 939 control subjects. In a recessive model,(More)
The course, location and relations of the corticospinal tracts within the spinal cord of man are demonstrated on the basis of cases with lesions above the spinal cord restricted to the corticospinal tracts, of motor neuron disease, and of anterolateral cordotomies; control cases were of normal spinal cords. The following features of the lateral(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the neurologic complications of critical medical illnesses, and to assess their effect on mortality rates and on medical ICU and hospital lengths of stay. DESIGN Prospective clinical evaluation of all medical ICU admissions for 2 yrs. SETTING A 14-bed, general medical intensive and coronary care unit in a large university(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. METHODS Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical(More)
The course and location of vestibulospinal, reticulospinal and descending propriospinal fibres in man are reported. The investigation was carried out on three patients with supraspinal lesions, four with transection of the spinal cord and 33 with anterolateral cordotomies. The lateral vestibulospinal tract at the medullospinal junction and in the first(More)