Michael C. Riedel

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Signs of an inflammatory process, in particular increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of prostaglandine E(2) (PGE(2)), have repeatedly been described in major depression (MD). As cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors inhibit the PGE(2) production and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we performed a therapeutic trial with the(More)
Patients with first-episode schizophrenia appear to respond to lower doses of neuroleptics, and to be more sensitive to developing extrapyramidal side-effects. The authors therefore compared in such patients the efficacy and extrapyramidal tolerability of comparatively low dosages of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone and of the conventional neuroleptic(More)
BACKGROUND To assess criteria and to identify predictive factors for functional outcome. The criteria should cover all domains proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group. METHOD PANSS ratings were used to evaluate the symptomatic treatment outcome of 262 inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders within a naturalistic multicenter(More)
In the last decade several studies have shown memory deficits in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which have been associated with a reduced hippocampus volume. However, until now we do not know how or whether these structural abnormalities turn into functional abnormalities. Thus, the primary purpose of the present study was the(More)
OBJECTIVE There is growing evidence of cognitive impairment as a trait factor in bipolar disorder. The generalizability of this finding is limited because previous studies have either focussed exclusively on bipolar I disorder or have analysed mixed patient groups. Thus, it is still largely unknown whether bipolar II patients perform differently from(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed onset of efficacy of antidepressants and a high proportion of depressed patients being poor or non-responders to antidepressants are well known clinical challenges. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to identify predictors for response and - even more important - for remission. It has been suggested that reduction of depressive symptoms(More)
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is presumed to be an inherited disorder with an unclear pathophysiology. An involvement of the basal ganglia is suspected. Besides vocal tics, one of the main symptoms is the presence of motor tics. As eye movements are a specialized part of the motor system, we investigated whether they differed in some typical way in(More)
Plants in the genus Nepenthes obtain a substantial nutrient supply by trapping insects in highly modified leaves. A broad zone of the inner surface of these pitchers is densely covered with wax crystals on which most insects lose their footing. This slippery wax surface, capturing prey and preventing its escape from the trap, plays a pivotal role in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Abnormalities in the immune system in schizophrenia have been described. However, important findings such as high levels of activating cytokines in the CSF and signs of CNS inflammation have been controversial. The authors conducted a trial of the new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, an immunomodulatory drug, in schizophrenic(More)
Immune alterations in schizophrenia have been described for decades. However, modern immunological methods and new insights into the highly developed and functionally differentiated immune system allow an integrative view of both the older and also more recent findings of immunological abnormalities in schizophrenia. The conceptual advances in immunology(More)