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We propose a novel parameter, namely, the skewness, or asymmetry, of the shape of a receptive field to characterize two properties of hippocampal place fields. First, a majority of hippocampal receptive fields on linear tracks are negatively skewed, such that during a single pass the firing rate is low as the rat enters the field but high as it exits.(More)
The problem of predicting the position of a freely foraging rat based on the ensemble firing patterns of place cells recorded from the CA1 region of its hippocampus is used to develop a two-stage statistical paradigm for neural spike train decoding. In the first, or encoding stage, place cell spiking activity is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process(More)
Pattern completion, the ability to retrieve complete memories on the basis of incomplete sets of cues, is a crucial function of biological memory systems. The extensive recurrent connectivity of the CA3 area of hippocampus has led to suggestions that it might provide this function. We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a genetically(More)
Lesion and pharmacological intervention studies have suggested that in both human patients and animals the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the rapid acquisition and storage of information from a novel one-time experience. However, how the hippocampus plays this role is poorly known. Here, we show that mice with NMDA receptor (NR) deletion restricted to(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to participate in making and evaluating goal-directed decisions. In rodents, spatial navigation is a major mode of goal-directed behavior, and anatomical and lesion studies implicate the OFC in spatial processing, but there is little direct evidence for coding of spatial or motor variables. Here, we recorded from(More)
Neural spike train decoding algorithms and techniques to compute Shannon mutual information are important methods for analyzing how neural systems represent biological signals. Decoding algorithms are also one of several strategies being used to design controls for brain-machine interfaces. Developing optimal strategies to design decoding algorithms and(More)
The significance of the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential measured in humans which indexes novelty in the auditory environment, has motivated a search for a cellular correlate of this process. A leading candidate is stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) in auditory cortex units, which shares several characteristics with the MMN. Whether(More)
A paradigm for constructing and analyzing non-Poisson stimulus-response models of neural spike train activity is presented. Inhomogeneous gamma (IG) and inverse Gaussian (IIG) probability models are constructed by generalizing the derivation of the inhomogeneous Poisson (IP) model from the exponential probability density. The resultant spike train models(More)
Activity-dependent attenuations in extracellular spike amplitude have been shown to correlate with a decrease in the effectiveness with which somatic action potentials back-propagate into the dendritic arbor of hippocampal pyramidal cells. In this paper we demonstrate that activity-dependent attenuations in amplitude occur during behavior and that the(More)
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channel blocker, has been found to induce rapid and robust antidepressant-like effects in rodent models and in treatment-refractory depressed patients. However, the marked acute psychological side effects of ketamine complicate the interpretation of both preclinical and clinical data. Moreover, the lack of(More)