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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
BACKGROUND Longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated increasing volumes of white matter and regionally-specific inverted U shaped developmental trajectories of gray matter volumes during childhood and adolescence. Studies of monozygotic and dyzygotic twins during this developmental period allow exploration of genetic and non-genetic(More)
The impact of genetic and environmental factors on human brain structure is of great importance for understanding normative cognitive and brain aging as well as neuropsychiatric disorders. However, most studies of genetic and environmental influences on human brain structure have either focused on global measures or have had samples that were too small for(More)
This article reviews the extant twin studies employing magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), with an emphasis on studies of population-based samples. There have been approximately 75 twin reports using MRI, with somewhat under half focusing on typical brain structure. Of these, most are samples of adults. For large brain regions such as lobar volumes, the(More)
BACKGROUND The 'odd' or 'Cluster A' personality disorders (PDs) - paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal PDs - were created in DSM-III with little empirical foundation. We have examined the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of these three personality disorders. METHOD These personality disorders(More)
In this report, we present the first regional quantitative analysis of age-related differences in the heritability of cortical thickness using anatomic MRI with a large pediatric sample of twins, twin siblings, and singletons (n = 600, mean age 11.1 years, range 5-19). Regions of primary sensory and motor cortex, which develop earlier, both phylogenetically(More)
An important component of brain mapping is an understanding of the relationships between neuroanatomic structures, as well as the nature of shared causal factors. Prior twin studies have demonstrated that much of individual differences in human anatomy are caused by genetic differences, but information is limited on whether different structures share common(More)
Surface area of the cerebral cortex is a highly heritable trait, yet little is known about genetic influences on regional cortical differentiation in humans. Using a data-driven, fuzzy clustering technique with magnetic resonance imaging data from 406 twins, we parceled cortical surface area into genetic subdivisions, creating a human brain atlas based(More)
Cortical surface area measures appear to be functionally relevant and distinct in etiology, development, and behavioral correlates compared with other size characteristics, such as cortical thickness. Little is known about genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in regional surface area in humans. Using a large sample of adult twins,(More)
The article uses confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as a template to explain didactically multilevel structural equation models (ML-SEM) and to demonstrate the equivalence of general mixed-effects models and ML-SEM. An intuitively appealing graphical representation of complex ML-SEMs is introduced that succinctly describes the underlying model and its(More)