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Many species have extreme within-sex morphological and behavioral polymorphisms, most commonly different male phenotypes that practice different reproductive strategies. Although much is known about the role of hormones in sexual differentiation, little is known about what role hormones might play in within-sex differentiation. The relative plasticity(More)
Males of many species exhibit strongly dimorphic reproductive behavior and morphology associated with alternative reproductive tactics. Little is known about the physiological control of these individual differences. The relative plasticity hypothesis proposes that such within-sex differences arise from either organizational or activational actions of sex(More)
Competition among physiological processes for limited resources often results in trade-offs. Key among these processes is reproduction and immune function, and optimizing both appears to be difficult. To test the hypothesis that the resource demands of reproduction compromise immune function, we measured rates of wound healing, an integrated measure of(More)
Some of the first experiments in behavioral endocrinology in the 1930s were conducted with lizards, but events led to a hiatus that lasted for 30 years. In the 1960s, research resumed using techniques current at the time, but it was not until the mid-1970s that behavioral neuroendocrinology "discovered" reptiles as animal model systems. This historical(More)
Species with alternative reproductive tacts are good models to investigate the poorly understood question of whether individual variation within sexes results from the same physiological mechanisms that control variation between sexes. We have shown previously that adult male tree lizards, Urosaurus ornatus, of different throat color morphs express(More)
Dominant and subordinate males respond differently to the stress of social interaction. After an hour of social interaction, subordinate male Anolis carolinensis have elevated serotonergic activity in hippocampus, but dominant males do not. In other species, and using other stressors, the activation of hippocampal serotonergic activity is much more rapid(More)
Vertebrates species vary in the degree to which the sexes differ in their expression of secondary sex characters, which can be expressed in one sex but not the other, fully expressed in both sexes, or expressed to different degrees in the two sexes. Sex steroid hormones contribute to the development of sex differences, either through action early in life(More)
Steroid hormones effect changes in both neuroanatomy and aggressive behavior in animals of various taxa. However, whether changes in neuroanatomy directly underlie changes in aggression is unknown. We investigate this relationship among steroid hormones, neuroanatomy, and aggression in a free-living vertebrate with a relatively simple nervous system, the(More)
The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homologue arginine vasopressin (AVP) are neuromodulators known to be steroid sensitive and associated with social behaviors in a number of vertebrate taxa. However, the role of AVT/P in the regulation of aggression remains unclear and contrasting effects of this peptide on aggression are seen in(More)
The magnitude of the glucocorticoid response to a stressor can depend on both environmental and physiological context. One factor that has not been examined is whether females of different reproductive states have different responses to a stressor. We examined whether corticosterone (CORT) increased after a 10 min handling stress in oviparous female tree(More)