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A major challenge in biology is understanding how organisms partition limited resources among physiological processes. For example, offspring production and self-maintenance are important for fitness and survival, yet these critical processes often compete for resources. While physiological trade-offs between reproduction and immune function have been(More)
Many species have extreme within-sex morphological and behavioral polymorphisms, most commonly different male phenotypes that practice different reproductive strategies. Although much is known about the role of hormones in sexual differentiation, little is known about what role hormones might play in within-sex differentiation. The relative plasticity(More)
Physiological trade-offs arise because multiple processes compete for the same limiting resources. While competition for resources has been demonstrated between reproduction and immune function, the regulation of this competition remains unclear. Corticosterone (CORT) is a likely mediator due to its dual role in mobilizing energy stores throughout the body(More)
Competition among physiological processes for limited resources often results in trade-offs. Key among these processes is reproduction and immune function, and optimizing both appears to be difficult. To test the hypothesis that the resource demands of reproduction compromise immune function, we measured rates of wound healing, an integrated measure of(More)
To examine the reciprocal interactions among gonadal and adrenal steroid secretion, male tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) were subjected to two forms of stress. They were subjected either to the acute stress of being held in collecting bags for up to 4 hr or to the chronic stress of being maintained in individual cages in the laboratory for up to 3 weeks.(More)
Exposure to stress can affect an organism's partitioning of resources among immune function and other organismal functions. However, measuring immune function is often difficult. Recent studies show that the rate of cutaneous wound healing in laboratory rodents is a simple, integrated measure of stress-sensitive immune function. We investigated the use of(More)
Some of the first experiments in behavioral endocrinology in the 1930s were conducted with lizards, but events led to a hiatus that lasted for 30 years. In the 1960s, research resumed using techniques current at the time, but it was not until the mid-1970s that behavioral neuroendocrinology "discovered" reptiles as animal model systems. This historical(More)
Species with alternative reproductive tacts are good models to investigate the poorly understood question of whether individual variation within sexes results from the same physiological mechanisms that control variation between sexes. We have shown previously that adult male tree lizards, Urosaurus ornatus, of different throat color morphs express(More)
Steroid hormones effect changes in both neuroanatomy and aggressive behavior in animals of various taxa. However, whether changes in neuroanatomy directly underlie changes in aggression is unknown. We investigate this relationship among steroid hormones, neuroanatomy, and aggression in a free-living vertebrate with a relatively simple nervous system, the(More)
Seasonal changes in testosterone levels in male mountain spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) are correlated tightly with seasonal changes in intensity of aggressive territorial defense. Testosterone levels are lowest in the winter when males aggregate, are moderately elevated during the summer when males show low-intensity territorial defense, and are(More)