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To elucidate the mechanisms that lead to sleep-disordered breathing, we have developed a mathematical model that allows for dynamic interactions among the chemical control of respiration, changes in sleep-waking state, and changes in upper airway patency. The increase in steady-state arterial PCO2 accompanying sleep is shown to be inversely related to the(More)
  • M C Khoo
  • 1990
The accuracy of the single-breath CO2 inhalation test as a method for determining peripheral chemoreflex gain (Gp) is evaluated through computer simulations using a mathematical model of the closed-loop respiratory control system. Estimates of Gp (G'p) are based on "corrected" changes in end-tidal PCO2, because the uncorrected end-tidal values do not(More)
We performed time-varying spectral analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) recorded from 16 normal humans during acoustically induced arousals from sleep. Time-varying autoregressive modeling was employed to estimate the time courses of high-frequency HRV power, low-frequency HRV power, the ratio between low-frequency(More)
Heart rate variability (HRV) is mediated by at least three primary mechanisms: 1) vagal feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR), 2) central medullary coupling between respiratory and cardiovagal neurons (RCC), and 3) arterial baroreflex (ABR)-induced fluctuations. We employed a noninvasive experimental protocol in conjunction with a minimal model to(More)
We studied the within-night variability of the maximum esophageal pressure deflection before apnea termination (DPmax) in nine patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea as an index of the arousal threshold and the mean electroencephalogram (EEG) delta power for each 30 s as an index of the timing of sleep cycles. Periodicity in the time variation of(More)
To determine whether nocturnal periodic breathing (PB) at altitude is due primarily to unstable control of ventilation or the inability to maintain stable sleep states, we performed visual and computer analyses of the electroencephalographic and respiratory records of healthy volunteers at simulated altitudes of 4572, 6100 and 7620 m. Transient arousals(More)
The polysomnographic and ventilatory patterns of nine normal adults were measured during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep before and after repeated administrations of a tone (40-72 dB) lasting 5 s. The ventilatory response to arousal (VRA) was determined in data sections showing electrocortical arousal following the start of the tone. Mean(More)
RATIONALE Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by vasoocclusive crises. Although hypoxia and pulmonary disease are known risk factors for these crises, the mechanisms that initiate vasoocclusive events are not well known. OBJECTIVES To study the relationship between transient hypoxia, respiration, and microvascular blood flow(More)
To determine the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on cardiovascular variability, we measured R-R interval (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and respiration (DeltaV) in 13 awake, supine patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), before and after ~6 mo of treatment. Using these data, we estimated(More)