Michael C. Graves

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BACKGROUND Monocyte/macrophages are known to infiltrate the brain of patients with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). In Alzheimer's disease brain, the origin of activated microglia has not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed the antigen retrieval technique, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescense, and confocal microscopy to identify macrophages(More)
Cocaine abuse has been associated with vasculitis and stroke, and is suspected to influence the progression of AIDS dementia. Cocaine may enhance HIV-1 neuroinvasion by actions directed at the blood-brain barrier. HIV-1 appears to penetrate the human brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier by a paracellular route breached by tumor necrosis factor-alpha(More)
Interferon stimulates the expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance-1 (MxA), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). We examined whether polymorphisms in these genes influenced the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We observed(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 invades the central nervous system early after infection when macrophage infiltration of the brain is low but myelin pallor is suggestive of blood-brain-barrier damage. High-level plasma viremia is a likely source of brain infection. To understand the invasion route, we investigated virus penetration across in vitro models with contrasting(More)
To develop diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), a retrospective series of patients' records diagnosed by sexpert consensus as CIDP or other chronic polyneuropathies were analyzed. Classification and regression tree analysis was applied to 150 patients to derive a classification rule. According to the rule,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the functional consequences of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2)-causing nonsense and missense mutations in vitro and to characterize the basis of fluctuating weakness in patients with E2A. BACKGROUND Mutations in CACNA1A encoding the Ca(v)2.1 calcium channel subunit cause EA2 through incompletely understood mechanisms. Although the(More)
Cocaine has wide-ranging effects on the immune and neuroendocrine systems (Fiala et al., 1996) resembling an inflammatory "stress" response with upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulation of the HPA axis (Gan et al., 1997). Cocaine abuse has also been associated with vascular pathology, including vasculitis, vasospasm and hemorrhage. These(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be caused by T-cell mediated autoimmune dysfunction. Risk of developing MS is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Modifiable differences in DNA methylation are recognized as epigenetic contributors to MS risk and may provide a valuable link between environmental exposure and inherited genetic(More)
Leukocyte infiltration of cerebral vessels in cocaine-associated vasculopathy suggests that cocaine may enhance leukocyte migration. We have investigated cocaine's effects on leukocyte adhesion in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMVEC) cultures and monocyte migration in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model constructed with BMVEC and(More)
BACKGROUND Minocycline has anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, and extends survival in mouse models of some neurological conditions. Several trials are planned or are in progress to assess whether minocycline slows human neurodegeneration. We aimed to test the efficacy of minocycline as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).(More)