Michael C Frühwald

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumor that carries a dismal prognosis and displays considerable heterogeneity. We have recently identified recurrent H3F3A mutations affecting two critical amino acids (K27 and G34) of histone H3.3 in one-third of pediatric GBM. Here, we show that each H3F3A mutation defines an epigenetic subgroup of GBM with a distinct global(More)
CpG islands frequently contain gene promoters or exons and are usually unmethylated in normal cells. Methylation of CpG islands is associated with delayed replication, condensed chromatin and inhibition of transcription initiation. The investigation of aberrant CpG-island methylation in human cancer has primarily taken a candidate gene approach, and has(More)
Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who(More)
PURPOSE To analyze the frequency, prognostic factors, and outcome of children with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), a rare and highly malignant embryonal brain tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical data of patients diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 with AT/RT who were registered to the German HIT trial center, were correlated with outcome. Patient(More)
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable(More)
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is one of the most common brain tumors in infants. Although the prognosis of ATRT patients is poor, some patients respond favorably to current treatments, suggesting molecular inter-tumor heterogeneity. To investigate this further, we genetically and epigenetically analyzed 192 ATRTs. Three distinct molecular(More)
Cancer cell lines are widely used in many types of cancer research, including studies aimed at understanding DNA hypermethylation of gene promoters in cancer. Hypermethylation of promoters is capable of repressing the expression of tumor suppressor genes and may play a role in the development and/or progression of cancer. Although both primary malignancies(More)
Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the CNS represent a biological and clinical enigma, despite advances in both molecular techniques and clinical management for these two rare embryonal brain tumors of childhood. Epigenetic changes hold great potential as possible disease mechanisms and(More)
Certain risk groups among tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in children take an almost inevitably fatal course. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms offers hope for improved therapy. Aberrant methylation is common in malignant brain tumors of childhood and may have implications for stratification and therapy. Methylation of p16 INK4A, p14 ARF,(More)