Michael C. Costanza

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BACKGROUND Enteral nutrition (EN) is recommended for patients in the intensive-care unit (ICU), but it does not consistently achieve nutritional goals. We assessed whether delivery of 100% of the energy target from days 4 to 8 in the ICU with EN plus supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) could optimise clinical outcome. METHODS This randomised(More)
The variability of the Class B Type I Scavenger Receptor (SR-BI) gene in human populations and the relation of its variants to blood lipids was investigated in a random sample of 1756 untreated adult residents of Geneva, Switzerland, during 1999-2000. A three-step study approach yielded the following results: (1) resequencing the gene's exons and flanking(More)
OBJECTIVES We report on trends in risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases among socioeconomic position (SEP) groups. METHODS We continuously surveyed the adult population of Geneva, Switzerland, for 8 years (1993-2000) with independent, cross-sectional surveys of representative samples (4207 men and 3987 women aged 35-74 years). Age-adjusted linear(More)
OBJECTIVES In this study we tested the ability of mass media interventions to enhance the efficacy of school cigarette smoking prevention programs. METHODS For 4 years, students in one pair of communities received media interventions and school programs that had common educational objectives. Students in a matched pair of communities received only the(More)
The immunosuppressive effects of blood transfusions in renal transplantation patients are now well documented. The question arises as to whether the possible immunosuppressive effects of blood transfusions in cancer patients cause a more favorable host environment for tumor growth. One hundred fifty-five patients undergoing resection for lung carcinoma were(More)
BACKGROUND It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after initial rejection are less well understood. We set out to estimate the proportion of abstracts submitted to meetings that are eventually(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial results published in July 2002 indicating that hormone therapy (HT) is potentially harmful for the heart and the mammary gland of naturally postmenopausal women was assessed for the first time in a European population. DESIGN This study continuously monitored HT use from 1994(More)
This study reports on the effects of innovative community-wide breast self-examination education approaches in increasing breast self-examination frequency and quality, and ability to detect breast lumps during a 1-year training program and a second-year maintenance program. Four Vermont communities were randomly assigned to receive breast self-examination(More)
The process of developing a mass media campaign to prevent smoking among adolescents is described in detail. This campaign supplements a school smoking prevention program and shares educational objectives with the school program but is otherwise independent. It comprises various television and radio 30- and 60-sec "spot" messages. The campaign development(More)