Michael C. Bertilson

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Soft-x-ray cryotomography allows quantitative and high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of intact unstained cells. To date, the method relies on synchrotron-radiation sources, which limits accessibility for researchers. Here we present a laboratory water-window microscope for cryotomography. It is based on a λ=2.48 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source, a(More)
We demonstrate a laboratory-scale arrangement for rapid and accurate measurements of the absolute and local efficiency of soft x-ray micro zone plates in the water window. This in-house instrument is based on a single-line lambda = 2.88 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source. Measurements are performed by a simultaneous comparison of first diffraction-order(More)
We present a numerical image-formation model for investigating the influence of partial coherence, sample thickness and depth-of-focus on the accuracy of tomographic reconstructions in transmission x-ray microscopes. The model combines wave propagation through the object by finite difference techniques with Fourier methods. We include a ray-tracing model to(More)
Zone plates are used as objectives for high-resolution x-ray microscopy. Both high resolution and high diffraction efficiency are crucial parameters for the performance of the lens. In this article, the authors demonstrate the fabrication of high-resolution soft x-ray zone plates with improved diffraction efficiency by combining a nanofabrication process(More)
We demonstrate high-resolution x-ray differential interference contrast DIC in a compact soft x-ray microscope. Phase contrast imaging is enabled by the use of a diffractive optical element objective which is matched to the coherence conditions in the microscope setup. The performance of the diffractive optical element objective is evaluated in comparison(More)
Using X-ray microscopy and spectromicroscopy, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were imaged, prepared without using additional embedding material or staining, but by applying simple, noncryo fixation techniques. The cells were imaged with a compact source transmission X-ray microscope and a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). With the STXM,(More)
Cold development was applied to improve the resolution in a trilayer resist that is used for the fabrication of state-of-the-art soft x-ray microscopy zone plates. By decreasing the temperature of the hexyl acetate developer to −50 °C, 11 nm half-pitch gratings have been resolved in the electron-beam resist ZEP 7000. 12 nm half-pitch gratings have been(More)
We summarize the recent progress in laboratory-scale soft and hard x-ray micro imaging in Stockholm. Our soft x-ray work is based on liquid-jet laser-plasma sources which are combined with diffractive and multilayer optics to form laboratory x-ray microscopes. In the hard x-ray regime the imaging is based on a liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source which(More)
In this paper the latest efforts to improve our nanofabrication process for soft x-ray zone plates is presented. The resolving power, which is proportional to the smallest outermost zone width of the zone plate, is increased by introducing cold development of the electron beam resist that is used for the patterning. With this process we have fabricated Ni(More)
Lens-based water-window X-ray microscopy allows two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) imaging of intact unstained cells in their near-native state with unprecedented contrast and resolution. Cryofixation is essential to avoid radiation damage to the sample. Present cryo X-ray microscopes rely on synchrotron radiation sources, thereby limiting the(More)