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We present methods for estimating the parameters of inheritance and selection that appear in a quantitative genetic model for the evolution growth trajectories and other "infinite-dimensional" traits that we recently introduced. Two methods for estimating the additive genetic covariance function are developed, a "full" model that fully fits the data and a(More)
Suppose that amino acid or nucleotide data are available for a homologous gene in several species which diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time and that substitution rates between all pairs of species are calculated, correcting as necessary for multiple substitutions and for back and parallel substitutions. The variances and covariances of(More)
The method of generalized least squares provides a flexible method of phylogenetic reconstruction from sequence data, after reducing them to pairwise distances between species, corrected for multiple and back mutation. It gives efficient estimates of the branch lengths of a given tree. It also provides a natural measure of the departure of the observed from(More)
Synonymous codon usage is less biased at the start of Escherichia coli genes than elsewhere. The rate of synonymous substitution between E.coli and Salmonella typhimurium is substantially reduced near the start of the gene, which suggests the presence of an additional selection pressure which competes with the selection for codons which are most rapidly(More)
MS2 is an RNA bacteriophage (3569 bases). The secondary structure of the RNA has been determined, and is known to play an important role in regulating translation. Paired regions of the genome have a higher G+C content than unpaired regions. It has been suggested that this reflects selection for high G+C content to encourage pairing, but a re-analysis of(More)
There are many interesting connections between music and mathematics, though these are rarely used when teaching maths in schools. In this paper we look at one example which involves using musical motivations to introduce some mathematical ideas. The aim is to develop a random method for making music which produces pleasant results.