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Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the(More)
The mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) is a domain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that mediates the exchange of ions, lipids and metabolites between the ER and mitochondria. ER chaperones and oxidoreductases are critical components of the MAM. However, the localization motifs and mechanisms for most MAM proteins have remained elusive. Using two(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity has recently been cited as the number one killer in the USA. This problem is both a national and regional epidemic. The health care costs of obesity and obesity-related illnesses are ever increasing, and gastric bypass surgery is becoming a popular treatment strategy. Recently, reports describe not only surgical outcomes, but also quality(More)
Protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires the enzymatic activity of chaperones and oxidoreductases that fold polypeptides and form disulfide bonds within newly synthesized proteins. The best-characterized ER redox relay depends on the transfer of oxidizing equivalents from molecular oxygen through ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) and protein(More)
The mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) has emerged as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signaling hub that accommodates ER chaperones, including the lectin calnexin. At the MAM, these chaperones control ER homeostasis but also play a role in the onset of ER stress-mediated apoptosis, likely through the modulation of ER calcium signaling. These opposing(More)
— Data visualization has become an important tool for analyzing very complex data. In particular, spatial visualization enables users to view data in a intuitive manner. It has typically been used to externalize clusters and their relationships which exist in highly complex multidimensional data. We envisage that not only cluster formation and relationships(More)
The complexity and size of data is rapidly increasing in modern science, business and engineering. This has resulted in increasing demands for more sophisticated data analysis methods. Multidimensional scaling has been used to visualize large high-dimensional datasets in the form of a map. Such maps are very intuitive for us, as we are familiar with reading(More)
We apologise for this mistake. Increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ drives the adaptive metabolic boost observed during early phases of ER stress Increases in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are often consequences of increases in mitochondrial Ca 2+ (Green and Wang, 2010). In order to determine whether early phases of ER stress induced by tunicamycin(More)