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BACKGROUND A tendency to orient attention toward threatening stimuli may be involved in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In keeping with this, both psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety reduce this negative attentional bias. It has been hypothesized, but not proved, that psychological interventions may alter the function of prefrontal(More)
A negative bias in the deployment of attention to emotional stimuli is commonly found in both anxiety and depression. Recent work has highlighted that such biases are causally related to emotional vulnerability, suggesting that interventions that ameliorate them may be therapeutic. Here, we review the evidence that attentional bias can be modified using(More)
There is intense interest in the development of effective cognitive enhancing drugs which would have therapeutic application across a number of neurological and psychological disorders including dementia, schizophrenia and depression. However, development in this area has been limited by the absence of sensitive biomarkers which can be used to detect and(More)
Depression is a global health problem requiring treatment innovation. Targeting neglected cognitive aspects may provide a useful route. We tested a cognitive-training paradigm using positive mental imagery (imagery cognitive bias modification, imagery CBM), developed via experimental psychopathology studies, in a randomized controlled trial. Training was(More)
BACKGROUND Emotional processing measures are sensitive to acute administration of clinically useful antidepressant drugs. We wished to test the hypothesis that these models would also be able to detect agents likely to cause depression as an adverse effect. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Negative attentional biases are thought to increase the risk of recurrence in depression, suggesting that reduction of such biases may be a plausible strategy in the secondary prevention of the illness. However, no previous study has tested whether reducing negative attentional bias causally affects risk factors for depressive recurrence. The(More)
BACKGROUND A pattern of attentional bias for threatening information is thought to be involved in the etiology of anxiety. Consistent with this idea, cognitive training techniques directly targeting such patterns of biased attention have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety. Research seeking to establish the neurologic underpinnings of change in the(More)
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous ligand of the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor in brain regions associated with mood disorders. We used a novel, potent, and selective orally bioavailable antagonist, LY2940094, to test the hypothesis that blockade of NOP receptors would induce antidepressant effects. In this(More)
Rimonabant is a cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) antagonist formerly used to treat obesity, but which was withdrawn from the market in late 2008 because of its association with psychiatric adverse effects such as depression and anxiety. Previously, we showed that a single dose of rimonabant produced a negative bias on an emotional word memory task, in the(More)
Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive therapies are effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Previous research suggests that both forms of treatments may work by altering cognitive biases in the processing of affective information. The current study assessed the effects of combining an SSRI with a cognitive(More)