Michael Browning

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BACKGROUND A tendency to orient attention toward threatening stimuli may be involved in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In keeping with this, both psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety reduce this negative attentional bias. It has been hypothesized, but not proved, that psychological interventions may alter the function of prefrontal(More)
A negative bias in the deployment of attention to emotional stimuli is commonly found in both anxiety and depression. Recent work has highlighted that such biases are causally related to emotional vulnerability, suggesting that interventions that ameliorate them may be therapeutic. Here, we review the evidence that attentional bias can be modified using(More)
BACKGROUND Negative attentional biases are thought to increase the risk of recurrence in depression, suggesting that reduction of such biases may be a plausible strategy in the secondary prevention of the illness. However, no previous study has tested whether reducing negative attentional bias causally affects risk factors for depressive recurrence. The(More)
Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making(More)
We have developed a single DNA typing method which uses 144 sequence-specific primer (SSP) reactions to simultaneously detect all known HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 and DQB1 specificities in an allele specific or group specific manner using the same method, reagents, PCR parameters and protocols for all loci. The results from this integrated class I(More)
BACKGROUND A pattern of attentional bias for threatening information is thought to be involved in the etiology of anxiety. Consistent with this idea, cognitive training techniques directly targeting such patterns of biased attention have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety. Research seeking to establish the neurologic underpinnings of change in the(More)
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous ligand of the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor in brain regions associated with mood disorders. We used a novel, potent, and selective orally bioavailable antagonist, LY2940094, to test the hypothesis that blockade of NOP receptors would induce antidepressant effects. In this(More)
Emotional processing measures are sensitive to acute administration of clinically useful antidepressant drugs. We wished to test the hypothesis that these models would also be able to detect agents likely to cause depression as an adverse effect. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant(More)
BACKGROUND Major depression is associated with abnormalities in reward processing at neural and behavioural levels. Neural abnormalities in reward have been described in young people at familial risk of depression but behavioural changes in reward-based decision making have been less studied in this group. METHOD We studied 63 young people (mean age 18.9(More)