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The Air Travel Information System (ATIS) domain serves as the common evaluation task for ARPA"spoken language system developers. 1 To support this task, the Multi-Site ATIS Data COllection Working group (MADCOW) coordinates data collection activities. This paper describes recent MADCOW activities. In particular, this paper describes the migration of the(More)
We present a method for condensing the information in multiple alignments of proteins into a mixture of Dirichlet densities over amino acid distributions. Dirichlet mixture densities are designed to be combined with observed amino acid frequencies to form estimates of expected amino acid probabilities at each position in a profile, hidden Markov model or(More)
The Sequence Alignment and Modeling system (SAM) is a collection of flexible software tools for creating, refining, and using linear hidden Markov models for biological sequence analysis. The model states can be viewed as representing the sequence of columns in a multiple sequence alignment, with provisions for arbitrary position-dependent insertions and(More)
This paper presents an extensive study of the software implementation on workstations of the NIST-recommended elliptic curves over prime fields. We present the results of our implementation in C and assembler on a Pentium II 400 MHz workstation. We also provide a comparison with the NIST-recommended curves over binary fields.
A Bayesian method for estimating the amino acid distributions in the states of a hidden Markov model (HMM) for a protein family or the columns of a multiple alignment of that family is introduced. This method uses Dirichlet mixture densities as priors over amino acid distributions. These mixture densities are determined from examination of previously(More)
Stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) can be applied to the problems of folding, aligning and modeling families of homologous RNA sequences. SCFGs capture the sequences' common primary and secondary structure and generalize the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in related work on protein and DNA. This paper discusses our new algorithm, Tree-Grammar EM,(More)
When Horsley and Clark invented the stereotaxic technique they revolutionized experimental neurobiology. For the first time it became possible to repeatably place experimental or surgical probes at precise locations within the skull. Unfortunately, variations in the position and size of neuroanatomical structures within the cranium have always limited the(More)