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We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,713 individuals of European ancestry with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 3,978 controls. After replication in 3,361 cases and 4,573 controls, we observed two strong association signals, one in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA; rs2736990, OR = 1.23, P = 2.24 x 10(-16)) and another at the MAPT(More)
Using microarrays, we identified de novo copy number variations in the SHANK2 synaptic scaffolding gene in two unrelated individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and mental retardation. DNA sequencing of SHANK2 in 396 individuals with ASD, 184 individuals with mental retardation and 659 unaffected individuals (controls) revealed additional variants(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid-beta protein which attract dense clusters of microglial cells. Here, we analyzed amyloid plaque-associated areas in aged APP23 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD, by combining laser microdissection with microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). By comparing gene(More)
BACKGROUND During the lifetime of a fermenter culture, the soil bacterium S. coelicolor undergoes a major metabolic switch from exponential growth to antibiotic production. We have studied gene expression patterns during this switch, using a specifically designed Affymetrix genechip and a high-resolution time-series of fermenter-grown samples. RESULTS(More)
Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis. Cellular and molecular characterization of these cells revealed many(More)
Little is known about the pathology and pathogenesis of the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. For a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation we performed a gene expression analysis comparing ruptured and unruptured aneurysm tissue to a control artery. Tissue samples of six ruptured and four unruptured(More)
Mental retardation affects 2-3% of the population and shows a high heritability.Neurodevelopmental disorders that include pronounced impairment in language and speech skills occur less frequently. For most cases, the molecular basis of mental retardation with or without speech and language disorder is unknown due to the heterogeneity of underlying genetic(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and sporadic, non-mendelian Parkinson's disease (PD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical symptoms and pathology. The etiology of both disorders is unknown, and complex combinations of multiple susceptibility genes and environmental factors are thought to be involved. Both disorders are(More)
Primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal-dominant inherited movement disorder. Most cases are caused by an in-frame deletion (GAG) of the DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. Reduced penetrance and phenotypic variability suggest that alteration of torsinA amino acid sequence is necessary but not sufficient for development of clinical symptoms and that additional(More)
PURPOSE Cone dystrophy with supernormal rod response (CDSRR) is a retinal disorder characterized by reduced visual acuity, color vision defects, and specific alterations of ERG responses that feature elevated scotopic b-wave amplitudes at high luminance intensities. Mutations in PDE6H and in KCNV2 have been described in CDSRR. A combined clinical and(More)