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Six "cavity-creating" mutants, Leu46----Ala (L46A), L99A, L118A, L121A, L133A, and Phe153----Ala (F153A), were constructed within the hydrophobic core of phage T4 lysozyme. The substitutions decreased the stability of the protein at pH 3.0 by different amounts, ranging from 2.7 kilocalories per mole (kcal mol-1) for L46A and L121A to 5.0 kcal mol-1 for(More)
The propensity of an amino acid to form an alpha helix in a protein was determined by multiple amino substitutions at positions 44 and 131 in T4 lysozyme. These positions are solvent-exposed sites within the alpha helices that comprise, respectively, residues 39 to 50 and 126 to 134. Except for two acidic substitutions that may be involved in salt bridges,(More)
Myelencephalon-specific protease (MSP), first identified in the rat and now known to have a human homologue (human kallikrein 6), is preferentially expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), compared with nonneural tissues. MSP has been postulated to have trypsin-like activity, is upregulated in response to glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic injury(More)
Kallikrein 6 (K6) is a member of the kallikrein gene family that comprises 15 structurally and functionally related serine proteases. In prior studies we showed that, while this trypsin-like enzyme is preferentially expressed in neurons and oligodendroglia of the adult central nervous system (CNS), it is up-regulated at sites of injury due to expression by(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are mitogenic and chemotactic agents for a wide variety of cell types and play a primary role in the regulation of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is involved in a variety of critical physiological events including organogenesis, wound healing, ischemic collateral circulation, and solid tumor growth. High-resolution structural(More)
The objective of this study was to define the potential scope of action of tissue kallikreins in T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. We demonstrate quantitatively the differential expression of all 15 human tissue kallikreins within brain, spinal cord and immune compartments. In human Jurkat T cells we demonstrate differential regulation of select(More)
The human kallikreins are a large multigene family of closely related serine-type proteases. In this regard, they are similar to the multigene kallikrein families characterized in mice and rats. There is a much more extensive body of knowledge regarding the function of mouse and rat kallikreins in comparison with the human kallikreins. Human kallikrein 6(More)
The human kallikrein locus on chromosome 19q13.3-13.4 contains kallikrein 1--the tissue kallikrein--and 14 related serine proteases. Recent investigations into their function and evolution have indicated that the present nomenclature for these proteins is inadequate or insufficient. Here we present a new nomenclature in which proteins without proven(More)
We have identified a novel serine protease, myelencephalon-specific protease (MSP), which is preferentially expressed in the adult CNS, and therein, is abundant in both neurones and oligodendroglia. To determine the potential activity of MSP in CNS demyelination, we examined its expression in multiple sclerosis lesions and in two animal models of multiple(More)
Kallikrein 6 is a serine protease expressed abundantly in normal adult human and rodent CNS, and therein is regulated by injury. In the case of CNS demyelinating disease, K6 expression in CNS occurs additionally in perivascular and parenchymal inflammatory cells suggesting a role in pathogenesis. Herein we describe two unique transcripts that occur within(More)