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This paper reviews the body of evidence that major depression is accompanied by a decreased antioxidant status and by induction of oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways. Major depression is characterized by significantly lower plasma concentrations of a number of key antioxidants, such as vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and a lowered total(More)
There is now strong evidence of progressive neuropathological processes in bipolar disorder (BD). On this basis, the current understanding of the neurobiology of BD has shifted from an initial focus on monoamines, subsequently including evidence of changes in intracellular second messenger systems and more recently to, incorporating changes in inflammatory(More)
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update. This second update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications. The(More)
BACKGROUND N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been in clinical practice for several decades. It has been used as a mucolytic agent and for the treatment of numerous disorders including paracetamol intoxication, doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, ischemia-reperfusion cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bronchitis, chemotherapy-induced toxicity, HIV/AIDS,(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse disease states, and may be a common pathogenic mechanism underlying many major psychiatric disorders, as the brain has comparatively greater vulnerability to oxidative damage. This review aims to examine the current evidence for the role of oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders, and its(More)
BACKGROUND There are a large number of factors mediating suicide. Many studies have searched for a direct causal relationship between economic hardship and suicide, however, findings have been varied. METHOD Suicide data was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period between January 1968 and August 2002. These were correlated with a(More)
In some patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), individual illness characteristics appear consistent with those of a neuroprogressive illness. Features of neuroprogression include poorer symptomatic, treatment and functional outcomes in patients with earlier disease onset and increased number and length of depressive episodes. In such patients,(More)
Extensive evidence exists associating depression with changes in the immune system. The present study evaluates the levels of complement components C3 and C4, C-reactive proteins, and IL-6 in patients who met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, as well as controls. Whereas no significant differences between the mean levels of C3(More)
Hepatic lipid overloading mainly in the form of triglycerides is considered a prerequisite for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, triglyceride accumulation in the liver in response to lipid overflow may represent a protective mechanism against lipotoxicity. Our aims were to assess the fundamental cellular mechanisms that(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the nature of executive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS Fifteen euthymic BD patients and 13 controls were administered a battery of executive tasks including verbal fluency, Stroop, Theory of Mind (ToM) tests and selected subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).(More)