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This paper reviews the body of evidence that major depression is accompanied by a decreased antioxidant status and by induction of oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways. Major depression is characterized by significantly lower plasma concentrations of a number of key antioxidants, such as vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and a lowered total(More)
There is now strong evidence of progressive neuropathological processes in bipolar disorder (BD). On this basis, the current understanding of the neurobiology of BD has shifted from an initial focus on monoamines, subsequently including evidence of changes in intracellular second messenger systems and more recently to, incorporating changes in inflammatory(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
Lithium has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder as the archetypal mood stabilizer, and has a wealth of empirical evidence supporting its efficacy in this role. Despite this, the specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Given the inherently complex nature of the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the nature of executive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS Fifteen euthymic BD patients and 13 controls were administered a battery of executive tasks including verbal fluency, Stroop, Theory of Mind (ToM) tests and selected subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).(More)
Case reports and studies of other neuroleptics suggest the efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of mania. Forty-five inpatients with DSM-IV mania were studied in a 28-day randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of either 6 mg daily of risperidone, 10 mg daily of haloperidol, or 800 to 1200 mg daily of lithium. The patients in all three groups showed(More)
In some patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), individual illness characteristics appear consistent with those of a neuroprogressive illness. Features of neuroprogression include poorer symptomatic, treatment and functional outcomes in patients with earlier disease onset and increased number and length of depressive episodes. In such patients,(More)
Many studies support a crucial role for oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) in the pathophysiology of unipolar and bipolar depression. These disorders are characterized inter alia by lowered antioxidant defenses, including: lower levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and glutathione; increased lipid peroxidation; damage to proteins, DNA and(More)
OBJECTIVE Schizophrenia is a multifaceted illness with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains. Standard treatments often focus on positive symptoms and may not adequately relieve other symptoms. Previous studies have suggested a role for mirtazapine in schizophrenia, particularly in negative symptoms. This study investigates the efficacy of adding(More)
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are(More)