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This paper reviews the body of evidence that major depression is accompanied by a decreased antioxidant status and by induction of oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways. Major depression is characterized by significantly lower plasma concentrations of a number of key antioxidants, such as vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and a lowered total(More)
There is now strong evidence of progressive neuropathological processes in bipolar disorder (BD). On this basis, the current understanding of the neurobiology of BD has shifted from an initial focus on monoamines, subsequently including evidence of changes in intracellular second messenger systems and more recently to, incorporating changes in inflammatory(More)
Case reports and studies of other neuroleptics suggest the efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of mania. Forty-five inpatients with DSM-IV mania were studied in a 28-day randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of either 6 mg daily of risperidone, 10 mg daily of haloperidol, or 800 to 1200 mg daily of lithium. The patients in all three groups showed(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse disease states, and may be a common pathogenic mechanism underlying many major psychiatric disorders, as the brain has comparatively greater vulnerability to oxidative damage. This review aims to examine the current evidence for the role of oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders, and its(More)
Extensive evidence exists associating depression with changes in the immune system. The present study evaluates the levels of complement components C3 and C4, C-reactive proteins, and IL-6 in patients who met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, as well as controls. Whereas no significant differences between the mean levels of C3(More)
In some patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), individual illness characteristics appear consistent with those of a neuroprogressive illness. Features of neuroprogression include poorer symptomatic, treatment and functional outcomes in patients with earlier disease onset and increased number and length of depressive episodes. In such patients,(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
Staging models are widely used in clinical medicine, and offer an insight into the progressive nature of many disorders. In general, the earlier stages of illness may be associated with a better prognosis and a higher treatment response. Once chronicity is reached, more complex and invasive treatments may be required, and the utility of treatments may(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for depression. They have been reported to regulate serotonin signalling in bone cells and may influence bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SSRIs on bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of women with a lifetime history of depression. In this(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the nature of executive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS Fifteen euthymic BD patients and 13 controls were administered a battery of executive tasks including verbal fluency, Stroop, Theory of Mind (ToM) tests and selected subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).(More)