Michael Beran

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Summation and numerousness judgments by 2 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were investigated when 2 quantities of M&Ms were presented sequentially, and the quantities were never viewed in their totality. Each M&M was visible only before placement in 1 of 2 cups. In Experiment 1, sets of 1 to 9 M&Ms were presented. In Experiment 2, the quantities in each cup(More)
Two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) made numerousness judgments of nonvisible sets of items. In Experiment 1, 1-10 items were dropped 1 at a time into an opaque cup, and then an additional 1-10 items were dropped 1 at a time into another opaque cup. The chimpanzees' performance levels were high and were more dependent on factors indicative of an(More)
Delay maintenance, which is the continuance over time of the choice to forgo an immediate, less preferred reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). In the 1st experiment, the apes were presented with 20 chocolate pieces that were placed, one at a time, into a bowl that was(More)
It is unknown whether animals, like humans, can employ behavioural strategies to cope with impulsivity. To examine this question, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would use self-distraction as a coping strategy in a situation in which they had to continually inhibit responses to accumulating candies in order to earn a greater amount of those(More)
Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al. concluded(More)
Two rhesus monkeys selected the larger of two sequentially presented sets of items on a computer monitor. In Experiment 1, performance was related to the ratio of set sizes, and the monkeys discriminated between sets with up to 10 items. Performance was not disrupted when 1 set had fewer than 4 items and 1 set had more than 4 items, a critical trial type(More)
The authors investigated the role that entropy measures, discriminative cues, and symbolic knowledge play for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the acquisition of the concepts of same and different for use in a computerized relational matching-to-sample task. After repeatedly failing to perceive relations between pairs of stimuli in a 2-choice(More)
Studies of bear cognition are notably missing from the comparative record despite bears' large relative brain size and interesting status as generalist carnivores facing complex foraging challenges, but lacking complex social structures. We investigated the numerical abilities of three American black bears (Ursus Americanus) by presenting discrimination(More)
Results that point to animals' metacognitive capacity bear a heavy burden, given the potential for competing behavioral descriptions. In this article, formal models are used to evaluate the force of these descriptions. One example is that many existing studies have directly rewarded so-called uncertainty responses. Modeling confirms that this practice is an(More)
Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that chimpanzees can delay gratification by inhibiting consumption of available food items for as long as 3 min as an experimenter transfers additional food items from a transparent container to a bowl placed in front of the subject. In this study, we examined the influence of the visibility of the food(More)