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INTRODUCTION Prior studies suggest that right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing has deleterious effects. Whether the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is a more optimal site for permanent pacing in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) has not been established. METHODS AND RESULTS We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial to determine whether(More)
A fiber optic system for water analysis with high transparency in the deep-UV region (lambda >/= 190 nm) is presented. The system consists of special UV-improved silica fibers and a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) as an optical cell. The apertures of both light guides, the silica fiber and the LCW, are matched. The optical losses of the device are investigated(More)
Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour(More)
How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game,(More)
This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group(More)
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