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In the early 1960s, Shiryaev obtained the structure of Bayesian stopping rules for detecting abrupt changes in independent and identically distributed sequences as well as in a constant drift of the Brownian motion. Since then, the methodology of optimal change-point detection has concentrated on the search for stopping rules that achieve the best balance(More)
The ciliary margin in lower vertebrates is a site of continual retinal neurogenesis and a stem cell niche. By contrast, the human eye ceases retinal neuron production before birth and loss of photoreceptors during life is permanent and a major cause of blindness. The discovery of a proliferative cell population in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult(More)
Rinderpest (RP) and peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR) are two important diseases of domestic ruminants. To improve on currently available vaccines against PPR, we have created cDNA copies of the RP virus genome in which either the fusion (F) or hemagglutinin (H) gene, or both, was replaced with the corresponding gene from PPR virus. It was necessary to(More)
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated(More)
The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to(More)
Sequential methods are developed for testing multiple hypotheses, resulting in a statistical decision for each individual test and controlling the familywise error rate and the familywise power in the strong sense. Extending the ideas of step-up and step-down methods for multiple comparisons to sequential designs, the new techniques improve over the(More)
Sequential procedures are developed for simultaneous testing of multiple hypotheses in sequential experiments. Proposed stopping rules and decision rules achieve strong control of both familywise error rates I and II. The optimal procedure is sought that minimizes the expected sample size under these constraints. Bonferroni methods for multiple comparisons(More)
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-expressing negative-sense mini-genomic constructs of measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) were rescued by standard technology with helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid (N), phospho- (P) and large (L) proteins of MV, canine distemper virus (CDV) or RPV in order to determine whether the proteins of(More)
We have cloned several cDNAs derived from the P gene of rinderpest virus. One of these, derived from a bicistronic N-P mRNA, has been sequenced in its entirety. Sequencing of a section of the others, and comparison with the genome sequence, showed that P gene transcripts, as for other morbilliviruses, were variable; non-templated Gs could be added at a site(More)
Rinderpest virus (RPV) is a morbillivirus that causes cattle plague, a disease of large ruminants. The viral genome is flanked at the 3' and 5' genome termini by the genome promoter (GP) and antigenome promoter (AGP), respectively. These promoters play essential roles in directing replication and transcription as well as RNA encapsidation and packaging. It(More)