Michael B. Ward

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This paper explores empirically the impact of enforcement efforts on environmental compliance, focusing on the role of regulator reputation spillover effects. We find that, on the margin, the impact of a fine for water pollutant violations is about a two-thirds reduction in the statewide violation rate in the year following a fine. This large result obtains(More)
Economists generally view environmental enforcement as a tool to secure compliance with regulations. This paper demonstrates that credible enforcement significantly increases statutory over-compliance with regulations as well. We find that many plants with discharges typically below legally permitted levels reduce discharges further when regulators issue(More)
1. INTRODUCTION. The authors of this paper met at a summer institute sponsored by the Oregon Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (OCEPT). Edwards is a researcher in undergraduate mathematics education. Ward, a pure mathematician teaching at an undergraduate institution, had had little exposure to mathematics education research prior(More)
This paper analyses the properties of the fixed-effects vector decomposition estimator, an emerging and popular technique for estimating time-invariant variables in panel data models with group effects. This estimator was initially motivated on heuristic grounds, and advocated on the strength of favorable Monte Carlo results, but with no formal analysis. We(More)
Using supermarket scanner data, we test a variety of hypotheses from trade journals about the invasion of private-label food products. According to conventional industry wisdom, name-brand firms defended their brands against new private-label products by lowering their prices, engaging in additional promotional activities, and increasingly differentiating(More)
[1] Household survey data for ten countries are used to quantify and test the importance of price and non-price factors on residential water demand and investigate complementarities between household water-saving behaviors and the average volumetric price of water. Results show: (1) the average volumetric price of water is an important predictor of(More)
Figure 1. A map of the Battle Creek watershed depicting sample sites locations (blue and black), site numbers, and the names of streams with sites that were sampled. Oversamples (green) and sites skipped for cause (red) are also depicted. Table 8. Power analysis by Roper et al. (2002) showing the number of sample sites needed to detect different degrees of(More)