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This paper explores empirically the impact of enforcement efforts on environmental compliance, focusing on the role of regulator reputation spillover effects. We find that, on the margin, the impact of a fine for water pollutant violations is about a two-thirds reduction in the statewide violation rate in the year following a fine. This large result obtains(More)
Economists generally view environmental enforcement as a tool to secure compliance with regulations. This paper demonstrates that credible enforcement significantly increases statutory over-compliance with regulations as well. We find that many plants with discharges typically below legally permitted levels reduce discharges further when regulators issue(More)
The conventional economic wisdom is that improving consumer information will enhance welfare. Yet, some scientists speculate that the Food and Drug Administration's prominent mercury in fish advisory may have harmed public health. Lower mercury intakes reduce neurological toxicity risks. However, since seafood is the predominant dietary source of healthful(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been demonstrated that genetic variation in CYP2C19 has a significant influence upon H. pylori eradication rates. We have determined a dosage regimen of lansoprazole that will provide EMs with exposure approximately equivalent to that obtained by PMs treated with standard doses and determined the exposure that a PM would experience if they(More)
Red mud leachate (pH 13) collected from Ajka, Hungary is neutralized to < pH 10 by HCl, gypsum, or seawater addition. During acid neutralization >99% Al is removed from solution during the formation of an amorphous boehmite-like precipitate and dawsonite. Minor amounts of As (24%) are also removed from solution via surface adsorption of As onto the Al(More)
The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal(More)
OBJECTIVE Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a significant clinical problem. The 5HT(3) receptor antagonists are effective anti-emetic medications but approximately 30% of patients do not respond. METHOD We examined the HTR3C gene, which is believed to encode a subunit of the 5HT(3) receptor, for genetic variation and association with anti-emetic(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the dentin tubule occluding effect of an 8% strontium acetate dentifrice (Sensodyne Rapid Relief) compared to patent dentin tubules using modern sample preparation, imaging, and analysis techniques. METHODS Etched dentin discs, either untreated or treated with the dentifrice, were analyzed by(More)