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The presence of multiple copies of the major replicative DNA polymerase (DnaE) in some organisms, including important pathogens and symbionts, has remained an unresolved enigma. We postulated that one copy might participate in error-prone DNA repair synthesis. We found that UV irradiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in increased mutation frequency(More)
The invasion of host cells by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum requires specific protein-protein interactions between parasite and host receptors and an intracellular translocation machinery to power the process. The transmembrane erythrocyte binding protein-175 (EBA-175) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) play central roles in(More)
Peptidoglycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activates innate immunity via the host sensor NOD2. Although MDP is N-acetylated in most bacteria, mycobacteria and related Actinomycetes convert their MDP to an N-glycolylated form through the action of N-acetyl muramic acid hydroxylase (NamH). We used a combination of bacterial genetics and synthetic chemistry(More)
It has long been held that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium sp., is incapable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. This view has recently been overturned with the emergence of data for the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the relict plastid of P. falciparum (known as the apicoplast). This pathway represents the type II pathway common to plant(More)
Fifty million new infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occur annually, claiming 2-3 million lives from tuberculosis worldwide. Despite the apparent lack of significant genetic heterogeneity between strains of M. tuberculosis, there is mounting evidence that considerable heterogeneity exists in molecules important in disease pathogenesis. These(More)
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans results in active disease in approximately 10% of immune-competent individuals, with the most-severe clinical manifestations observed when the bacilli infect the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we use a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis to evaluate the severity of disease caused by the M.(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been classified into 4 main lineages. Some reports have associated certain lineages with particular clinical phenotypes, but there is still insufficient information regarding the clinical and epidemiologic implications of MTB lineage variation. METHODS Using large sequence polymorphisms we classified MTB(More)
We have analyzed artemisinin sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from patients in South Vietnam and show that artemisinin sensitivity does not differ before and after drug treatment. There was an increase in the level of mefloquine resistance in the isolates after drug treatment that was concomitant with a decrease in chloroquine(More)
Mycobacteria produce an unusual, glycolylated form of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is more potent and efficacious at inducing NOD2-mediated host responses. We tested the importance of this modified form of MDP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by disrupting the gene, namH, responsible for this modification. In vitro, the namH mutant did not produce(More)
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