Michael B. Reed

Learn More
Fifty million new infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occur annually, claiming 2-3 million lives from tuberculosis worldwide. Despite the apparent lack of significant genetic heterogeneity between strains of M. tuberculosis, there is mounting evidence that considerable heterogeneity exists in molecules important in disease pathogenesis. These(More)
In vitro infection of monocytes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis HN878 and related W/Beijing isolates preferentially induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, which characterize Th2 polarized immunity. In contrast, CDC1551 induced more IL-12 and other molecules associated with phagocyte activation and Th1 protective immunity. The differential(More)
Peptidoglycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activates innate immunity via the host sensor NOD2. Although MDP is N-acetylated in most bacteria, mycobacteria and related Actinomycetes convert their MDP to an N-glycolylated form through the action of N-acetyl muramic acid hydroxylase (NamH). We used a combination of bacterial genetics and synthetic chemistry(More)
The genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed the presence of 12 membrane proteins proposed to have a function in the transport of lipids. Insertional inactivation of 11 of these has revealed that only 1 (MmpL3) is apparently essential for viability. Five of these proteins are conserved within the genome of Mycobacterium leprae. The drug(More)
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans results in active disease in approximately 10% of immune-competent individuals, with the most-severe clinical manifestations observed when the bacilli infect the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we use a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis to evaluate the severity of disease caused by the M.(More)
The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has been associated with epidemic spread and an increased likelihood of developing drug resistance. The characteristics that predispose this family to such clinical outcomes have not been identified, although one potential candidate, the phenolic glycolipid PGL-tb, has been shown to mediate a(More)
Over recent years, there has been an increasing acknowledgment of the diversity that exists among Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. To facilitate comparative studies aimed at deciphering the relevance of this diversity to human disease, an unambiguous and easily interpretable method of strain classification is required. Presently, the most(More)
The presence of multiple copies of the major replicative DNA polymerase (DnaE) in some organisms, including important pathogens and symbionts, has remained an unresolved enigma. We postulated that one copy might participate in error-prone DNA repair synthesis. We found that UV irradiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in increased mutation frequency(More)
It has long been held that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium sp., is incapable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. This view has recently been overturned with the emergence of data for the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the relict plastid of P. falciparum (known as the apicoplast). This pathway represents the type II pathway common to plant(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been classified into 4 main lineages. Some reports have associated certain lineages with particular clinical phenotypes, but there is still insufficient information regarding the clinical and epidemiologic implications of MTB lineage variation. METHODS Using large sequence polymorphisms we classified MTB(More)