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The ATM protein kinase, mutations of which are associated with the human disease ataxia-telangiectasia, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer or higher-order multimer, with the kinase domain bound to a region surrounding serine 1981 that is contained within the(More)
The telomeric protein TRF2 is required to prevent mammalian telomeres from activating DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that overexpression of TRF2 affects the response of the ATM kinase to DNA damage. Overexpression of TRF2 abrogated the cell cycle arrest after ionizing radiation and diminished several other readouts of the DNA damage response,(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is activated and phosphorylated on serine-15 in response to various DNA damaging agents. The gene product mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, ATM, acts upstream of p53 in a signal transduction pathway initiated by ionizing radiation. Immunoprecipitated ATM had intrinsic protein kinase activity and phosphorylated p53 on(More)
All life on earth must cope with constant exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as the Sun's radiation. Highly conserved DNA-repair and cell-cycle checkpoint pathways allow cells to deal with both endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage. How much an individual is exposed to these agents and how their cells respond to DNA damage are critical(More)
The inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis that follows DNA damage may be critical for avoiding genetic lesions that could contribute to cellular transformation. Exposure of ML-1 myeloblastic leukemia cells to nonlethal doses of the DNA damaging agents, gamma-irradiation or actinomycin D, causes a transient inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis via both(More)
Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases implicated in the biochemical and morphological changes that occur during apoptosis (programmed cell death). The loop domain of Bcl-2 is cleaved at Asp34 by caspase-3 (CPP32) in vitro, in cells overexpressing caspase-3, and after induction of apoptosis by Fas ligation and interleukin-3 withdrawal. The(More)
GADD45 is a ubiquitously expressed mammalian gene that is induced by DNA damage and certain other stresses. Like another p53-regulated gene, p21WAF1/CIP1, whose product binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), GADD45 has been associated with growth suppression. Gadd45 was found to bind to PCNA, a normal(More)
We show that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce complex subcompartmentalization of genome surveillance regulators. Chromatin marked by gamma-H2AX is occupied by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, Mdc1, and 53BP1. In contrast, repair factors (Rad51, Rad52, BRCA2, and FANCD2), ATM and Rad-3-related (ATR) cascade (ATR, ATR interacting protein, and(More)
We developed a novel system to create DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at defined endogenous sites in the human genome, and used this system to detect protein recruitment and loss at and around these breaks by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The detection of human ATM protein at site-specific DSBs required functional NBS1 protein, ATM kinase activity(More)
As its name suggests, the ATM--'ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated'--gene is responsible for the rare disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Patients show various abnormalities, mainly in their responses to DNA damage, but also in other cellular processes. Although it is hard to understand how a single gene product is involved in so many physiological processes, a(More)