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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder with familial and acquired forms. The familial form is associated with mutations in the perforin gene and both forms are associated with severe defects in lymphocyte cytotoxic function. We examined perforin-deficient mice as a model of HLH in order to gain insight into this poorly understood(More)
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, caused by BIRC4 mutations, is described to cause X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) phenotypes. However, compared with XLP caused by SLAM-Associated Protein deficiency (SH2D1A mutation), XIAP deficiency was originally observed to be associated with a high incidence of hemophagocytic(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation, occurring as either a familial disorder or a sporadic condition, in association with a variety of triggers. This immune dysregulatory disorder is prominently associated with cytopenias and a unique combination of clinical signs and symptoms of extreme inflammation.(More)
BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome that remains difficult to treat. Even with current standard HLH therapy, only approximately half of patients will experience complete resolution of disease, and early mortality remains a significant problem. Salvage therapies have been described only in(More)
The histiocytoses are rare disorders characterized by the accumulation of macrophage, dendritic cell, or monocyte-derived cells in various tissues and organs of children and adults. More than 100 different subtypes have been described, with a wide range of clinical manifestations, presentations, and histologies. Since the first classification in 1987, a(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop criteria for the classification of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS A multistep process, based on a combination of expert consensus and analysis of real patient data, was conducted. A panel of 28 experts was first asked to classify 428 patient profiles as(More)
Cytopenias of uncertain etiology are commonly observed in patients during severe inflammation. Hemophagocytosis, the histological appearance of blood-eating macrophages, is seen in the disorder hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and other inflammatory contexts. Although it is hypothesized that these phenomena are linked, the mechanisms facilitating acute(More)
Mutations in the LRBA gene (encoding the lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein) cause a syndrome of autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and humoral immune deficiency. The biological role of LRBA in immunologic disease is unknown. We found that patients with LRBA deficiency manifested a dramatic and sustained improvement in response to(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune dysregulatory syndrome that is associated with underlying defects of perforin-dependent cytotoxic function. This review seeks to update readers on new scientific insights and evolving clinical concepts related to this rare but fatal disorder. RECENT FINDINGS Clinically, HLH is defined(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory syndrome defined by clinical and laboratory criteria. Current criteria were created to identify patients with familial hemophagocytic lmyphohistiocytosis in immediate need of immunosuppressive therapy. However, these criteria also identify patients with infection-associated hemophagocytic(More)