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Cellular metastasis is the most detrimental step in carcinoma disease progression, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process are poorly understood. CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are co-expressed in several tissues and cell types throughout the body and play essential roles in development. Disruption of either gene causes embryonic lethality due to(More)
Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been linked with increased metastasis and decreased clinical prognosis in breast cancer. The current paradigm dictates that CXCR4 fosters carcinoma cell metastasis along a chemotactic gradient to organs expressing the ligand CXCL12. The present study asked if alterations in autocrine CXCR4 signaling via(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Human intestinal epithelial cells inducibly express neutrophil and monocyte chemoattractants, yet little is known about the regulated production of T-cell chemoattractants by the intestinal epithelium. IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC are 3 CXC chemokines that are known to act as CD4(+) T-cell chemoattractants. METHODS We studied constitutive(More)
Many clinically important enteric pathogens initiate disease by invading and passing through the intestinal epithelium, a process accompanied by increased epithelial expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To further define the role intestinal epithelial cells play in initiating and modulating the host response to infection with invasive bacteria, hybrid(More)
Human intestinal epithelial cells secrete an array of chemokines known to signal the trafficking of neutrophils and monocytes important in innate mucosal immunity. We hypothesized that intestinal epithelium may also have the capacity to play a role in signaling host adaptive immunity. The CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha/CCL20 is(More)
The intestinal epithelium produces and responds to cytokines and lipid mediators that play a key role in the induction and regulation of mucosal inflammation. The lipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) can be produced and degraded by the human intestinal epithelium and is known to mediate a range of proinflammatory and other biological effects in(More)
Mice genetically deficient in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 or its ligand stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 die perinatally with marked defects in vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to define the expression and angiogenic functions of microvascular CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCL12 in the human intestinal tract. Studies of(More)
Chemokines, a large family of small chemoattractive cytokines, and their receptors play an integral role in the regulation of the immune response and homeostasis. The ability of chemokines to attract specific populations of immune cells sets them apart from other chemoattractants. Chemokines produced within the gastrointestinal mucosa are critical players(More)
This study determined that intestinal myoelectric activity was profoundly altered during a strictly luminal, chronic, tapeworm infection. Chronically implanted bipolar electrodes were attached to five sites on the serosal surface of the rat small intestine. One was placed on the duodenum, three on the jejunum, and the fifth on the ileum. Electromyographic(More)