Michael B Cossoy

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Chemokines and their receptors have principal roles in leukocyte trafficking under normal physiological and pathological conditions. The differential expression of the chemokine system in different parts of the CNS provides insights into the processes that are required for normal immune surveillance and pathological immune-mediated effector processes.(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutations in the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) protein cause accumulation of unbranched saturated very-long-chain fatty acids, particularly in brain and adrenal cortex. In humans, the genetic defect causes progressive inflammatory demyelination in the brain, where very-long-chain fatty acids accumulate within phospholipid fractions such as(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare survival in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population with a matched cohort from the general population, and to evaluate the association of comorbidity with survival in both populations. METHODS Using population-based administrative data, we identified 5,797 persons with MS and 28,807 controls matched on sex, year of birth, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare leukocyte accumulation and expression of the chemokine receptor/ligand pair CXCR4/CXCL12 in magnetic resonance imaging-defined regions of interest (ROIs) in brains from patients with chronic multiple sclerosis. We studied the following ROIs: normal-appearing white matter (NAWM); regions abnormal only on T2-weighted images (T2 only); and(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to describe hospitalizations in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population, and to evaluate temporal trends in hospitalizations in the MS population compared to the general population. METHODS Using population-based administrative data, we identified 5,797 persons with MS and a matched general population cohort of 28,769 persons. Using(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the association between comorbidity and rates of hospitalization in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population as compared to a matched cohort from the general population. METHODS Using population-based administrative data from the Canadian province of Manitoba, we identified 4,875 persons with MS and a matched general(More)
T cell activation follows recognition of specific peptide:MHC molecule complexes in the context of proper costimulation. The earliest detectable event in T cell activation, within seconds of TCR ligand recognition, is tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR subunits. This causes a cascade of events leading to up-regulation of gene transcription that will drive T(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (iPML) with enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions and leukocyte infiltration occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment. MRI diagnostic criteria for PML suggest that iPML does not occur in(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis characterized by entry of activated T cells and antigen presenting cells into the central nervous system and subsequent autoimmune destruction of nerve myelin. Previous studies revealed that non-selective inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) 1 and 2(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize pathologic changes in the cerebral cortex of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS Autopsy brain tissue was obtained from 13 patients with PML, 4 patients with MS, 2 patients with HIV encephalopathy, and 1 subject without neurologic pathology. Immunohistochemistry for(More)
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