Michael Anthony Velbel

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Chemical weathering indices are commonly used for characterizing weathering profiles by incorporating bulk major element oxide chemishy inlo a single metric for each sample. Generally, on homogeneous parent rocks, weathering indices change systematically with depth. However, the weathering of heterogeneous metamorphic rocks confounds the relationship(More)
Allanite and epidote occur in the parent rocks of weathered regolith at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laborato~y in North Carolina and exhibit different responses to weathering. Petrographically, epidote and allanite are identical at Coweeta, and only with additional analytical techniques (e.g., EDS or LAICP-MS) can the two be distinguished. Allanite is more(More)
The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate(More)
Estimation of the temperature dependence of natural feldspar weathering in two catchments at different elevations yields an apparent Arrhenius activation energy of 18.4 kcal/mol (77.0 kj/mol), much higher than most laboratory values. This finding supports recent suggestions that hydrolytic weathering of silicate minerals may consume carbonic acid and(More)
Nesquehonite, a hydrous magnesium carbonate, occurs as a weathering product on the surface of the Antarctic meteorite LEW 85320(H5 chondrite). Antarctic meteorites have resided on the earth for periods of 10(4) to 10(6) years, but the time needed for weathering products to form has been uncertain. Isotopic measurements of delta(13)C and delta(18)O indicate(More)
The bulk of the comet 81P/Wild 2 (hereafter Wild 2) samples returned to Earth by the Stardust spacecraft appear to be weakly constructed mixtures of nanometer-scale grains, with occasional much larger (over 1 micrometer) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal, and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene(More)
Rates of clay formation in three watersheds located at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, western North Carolina, have been determined from solute flux-based mass balance methods. A system of mass balance equations with enough equations and unknowns to allow calculation of secondarymineral formation rates as well as the more commonly determined(More)
Augite, hypersthene, diopside, and hornblende all undergo dissolution during weathering by means of the formation, growth, and coalescence of distinctive, parallel, lens-shaped etch pits. Similar etch features can be produced if these minerals are treated in the laboratory with concentrated hydrofluoric acid plus hydrochloric acid. These pits most likely(More)
Mineral surface-textures on naturally weathered c of staurolite [monoclinic, pseudo-orthorhombic; Fe4Al18Sis046( rtalS indicate that staurolite weathering is general1 interface-limited. Etch pits on naturally weathered staurolites are disi-shaped, extensive parallel to (OIO), and thin perpendicular to (010). (010) is the plane of weak bonding and weak(More)
Many of the minerals observed or inferred to occur in the sediments and sedimentary rocks of Mars, from a variety of Mars-mission spacecraft data, also occur in Martian meteorites. Even Martian meteorites recovered after some exposure to terrestrial weathering can preserve preterrestrial evaporite minerals and useful information about aqueous alteration on(More)