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The authors examined the interaction of 3 situational variables (activity type, location, and encounfer type) on 3 predicfors of perceived crowding (perceived, preferred and roleruble encounter levels). A toral of 310 koyakers and canoers and 356 rafrers completed on-site and mail-back surveys regarding their trip on the Nantahala River in North Carolina(More)
A conceptual framework, adapted from the Value-Belief-Norm theory, is proposed for understanding the role of studying abroad in nurturing global citizenship. The framework is oriented in concepts of justice, the environment, and civic obligations as key issues in the predictive validity of values, beliefs, and norms. The VBN approach is then applied to the(More)
Over the past decade there have been increasing calls to develop the capacity of United States students to think and act globally (Stearns, 2009). One method of encouraging the civic of global citizenship is through study abroad (Tarrant, 2010). However, the educational value and legitimacy of study abroad, in particular short-term programs, has been(More)
Authors' contributions This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors LP, KRS, LS, DW, RP and MAT: (1) made substantial contributions to conception and design, (2) assisted in drafting the article and provided important intellectual content; and (3) gave final approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved(More)
Framed in the cognitive hierarchy approach, we examine (1) the mediating effect of general environmenrat atritudes and (2) the moderating effect of facrual wildlife knowledge on the relarionship berween values and specific wildlife attitudes (wildlife species prorec-(ion). These relarionships are assessed across four wildlife consrinrent groups: (I)(More)
Short-term study abroad is the fastest growing area of international education and there is increasing interest in the role of modified applications of this form (e.g. faculty-led, field/environmental, and/or educational travel) in influencing global citizenship. Using an empirical database of over 650 students registered for a study abroad course in(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent events have heightened awareness of disaster health issues and the need to prepare the health workforce to plan for and respond to major incidents. This has been reinforced at an international level by the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, which has proposed an international educational framework. OBJECTIVE The aim(More)
Research on the social bases of environmentalism in the United States has generally found that urban residents are more concerned about the environment than rural residents. Recent research suggests this may no longer be the case, particularly in specific settings or under certain conditions. This paper examines the issue by reviewing recent survey research(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke occurrence appears to be a random event, yet annual and supra-annual periodicity is observed. Recent attention in atherosclerotic disease etiology has focused on infectious and inflammatory mechanisms. Influenza is one such infection that may influence stroke occurrence. METHODS We explored population-based time series data on stroke(More)
This paper provides a framework and guidelines for identifying and organizing human dimension information for use in forest planning. It synthesizes concepts from a variety of social science disciplines and connects them with measurable indicators for use in analysis and reporting. Suggestions of analytical approaches and sources of data for employment of(More)