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Gonadal failure induces bone loss while obesity prevents it. This raises the possibility that bone mass, body weight, and gonadal function are regulated by common pathways. To test this hypothesis, we studied leptin-deficient and leptin receptor-deficient mice that are obese and hypogonadic. Both mutant mice have an increased bone formation leading to high(More)
Vitamin D, the major steroid hormone that controls mineral ion homeostasis, exerts its actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is expressed in many tissues, including several tissues not thought to play a role in mineral metabolism. Studies in kindreds with VDR mutations (vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, VDDR II) have demonstrated(More)
The primary defect in mice lacking the c-src gene is osteopetrosis, a deficiency in bone resorption by osteoclasts. Osteoclasts express high levels of the c-Src protein and the defect responsible for the osteopetrotic phenotype of the c-src-deficient (src-) mouse is cell-autonomous and occurs in mature osteoclasts. However, the specific signalling pathways(More)
Aging decreases the human femur's fatigue resistance, impact energy absorption, and the ability to withstand load. Changes in the osteocyte distribution and in their elemental composition might be involved in age-related bone impairment. To address this question, we carried out a histomorphometric assessment of the osteocyte lacunar distribution in the(More)
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 plays a major role in intestinal calcium transport. To determine what phenotypic abnormalities observed in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-ablated mice are secondary to impaired intestinal calcium absorption rather than receptor deficiency, mineral ion levels were normalized by dietary means. VDR-ablated mice and control littermates were(More)
The molecular mechanisms controlling bone extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by differentiated osteoblasts in postnatal life, called hereafter bone formation, are unknown. This contrasts with the growing knowledge about the genetic control of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development. Cbfa1, a transcriptional activator of osteoblast(More)
The parathyroid glands are the only known source of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), which initiates an endocrine cascade that regulates serum calcium concentration. Glial cells missing2 (Gcm2), a mouse homologue of Drosophila Gcm, is the only transcription factor whose expression is restricted to the parathyroid glands. Here we show that(More)
Several studies have evaluated quantitative anatomic data for direct lateral mass screw fixation. To analyze anatomic landmarks and safe zones for optimal screw placement through the posterior arc of the human atlas, morphometric parameters of 41 adult native human atlas specimens were quantitatively measured. Internal dimensions of the atlas (lateral mass,(More)
The clinical relevance and nature of calcaneal cysts is controversial. The risk of pathologic fracture is undefined and diagnostic criteria to differentiate between cysts in patients who can be treated nonoperatively and patients who require surgical intervention are not available. To address these questions, 50 calcaneal bone cysts in 47 patients were(More)