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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a key signalling enzyme for many GPCRs and catalyses the conversion of ATP to cAMP which, in turn, is a crucial determinant of many biological responses. β-Adrenoceptor agonists are prescribed as bronchodilators for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and it is commonly assumed that they elicit(More)
Airway sensory nerves play an important defensive role in the lungs, being central in mediating protective responses like cough and bronchoconstriction. In some cases, these responses become excessive, hypersensitive, and deleterious. Understanding the normal function of airway nerves and phenotype changes associated with disease will help in developing new(More)
RATIONALE Most airway diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are associated with excessive coughing. The extent to which this may be a consequence of increased activation of vagal afferents by pathology in the airways (e.g., inflammatory mediators, excessive mucus) or an altered neuronal phenotype is unknown. Understanding whether(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist tiotropium, a drug widely prescribed for its bronchodilator activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, improves symptoms and attenuates cough in preclinical and clinical tussive agent challenge studies. The mechanism by which(More)
BACKGROUND Theophylline has been used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for more than 80 years. In addition to bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activity, clinical studies have suggested that theophylline acts as an antitussive agent. Cough is the most frequent reason for consultation with a family doctor, and treatment(More)
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) causes cough and levels are increased in asthma suggesting that it may contribute to symptoms. Although the prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) is a target for numerous drug discovery programmes little is known about the actions of PGD2 on sensory nerves and cough. We used human and guinea pig bioassays, in vivo electrophysiology and a(More)
BACKGROUND Sensory nerves innervating the airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions, maintaining homeostasis under healthy conditions and contributing to pathophysiology in disease states. Hypo-osmotic solutions elicit sensory reflexes, including cough, and are a potent stimulus for airway narrowing in asthmatic(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are both common respiratory diseases that are associated with airflow reduction/obstruction and pulmonary inflammation. Whilst drug therapies offer adequate symptom control for many mild to moderate asthmatic patients, severe asthmatics and COPD patients symptoms are often not controlled, and in these(More)
We previously found that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells was elevated after 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. However, the mechanism underlying CS-induced TRPA1 expression remains unknown. Here, we explored whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced TRPA1 expression is related with modulation(More)
BACKGROUND Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of particulate matter in Europe's largest cities and epidemiological evidence links exposure with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory reflexes are responsible for symptoms and are regulated by vagal afferent nerves which innervate the airway. It is not known how DEP(More)
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