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Functional activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors requires both glutamate binding and the binding of an endogenous coagonist that has been presumed to be glycine, although D-serine is a more potent agonist. Localizations of D-serine and it biosynthetic enzyme serine racemase approximate the distribution of NMDA receptors more closely than(More)
Prolonged low-frequency stimulation of excitatory afferents to basolateral amygdala neurons results in enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic responses. The induction of this form of synaptic plasticity is eliminated by selective antagonists of GluR5 kainate receptors and can be mimicked by the GluR5 agonist ATPA. Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic(More)
Certain neurosteroids rapidly alter the excitability of neurons, in part by potentiating gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked chloride currents, and, like other GABA potentiating drugs, may have anticonvulsant activity. We compared the abilities of a series of isomeric metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (3-hydroxy pregnane-20-ones and(More)
Stress affects seizure susceptibility in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure. Here, we provide evidence that GABA(A) receptor-modulating neurosteroids derived from deoxycorticosterone (DOC) play a role in stress-related changes in seizure control. DOC, an adrenal steroid whose synthesis is enhanced during stress, undergoes(More)
Memantine has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the neurobiological basis for the therapeutic activity of memantine is not fully understood, the drug is not a cholinesterase inhibitor and, therefore, acts differently from current AD therapies. Memantine can interact with a variety of(More)
1. The direct activation of the GABAA receptor by pentobarbitone (PB) and phenobarbitone (PHB) was characterized in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using whole-cell voltage clamp and single channel recording techniques. 2. In whole-cell recordings, PB and PHB produced a concentration-dependent activation of Cl- current (EC50 values, 0.33 and 3.0 mM,(More)
The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapeutic approach for epilepsy, one in which most clinical experience has been with children. Although the mechanism by which the diet protects against seizures is unknown, there is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory(More)
Perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy, the exacerbation of seizures in association with menstruation, may in part be due to withdrawal of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one), an endogenous anticonvulsant neurosteroid that is a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors. Neurosteroid(More)
NMDA and non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) antagonists have potential in the treatment of a diverse group of neurological disorders associated with excessive activation of excitatory amino acid receptors. Here Michael Rogawski reviews recent progress in the development of therapeutically useful NMDA receptor channel blockers and a new class of selective AMPA/kainate(More)