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Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that function as photoprotectors, precursors of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), colorants and nutraceuticals. A major problem for the metabolic engineering of high carotenoid levels in plants is the limited supply of their isoprenoid precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), formed by condensation of isopentenyl(More)
To form the building blocks of isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase activity, which converts IPP to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), appears to be necessary in cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria. Arabidopsis thaliana contains only two IPP isomerases (Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase1 [IDI1] and IDI2). Both encode proteins with N-terminal(More)
Grand fir (Abies grandis) is a useful model system for studying the biochemistry, molecular genetics, and regulation of defensive oleoresin formation in conifers, a process involving both the constitutive accumulation of resin (pitch) in specialized secretory structures and the induced biosynthesis of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (turpentine) and(More)
In plants, the plastid-localized 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway provides the precursors for the synthesis of isoprenoid hormones, monoterpenes, carotenoids and the side chain of chlorophylls, tocopherols and prenylquinones. As a result of the fast progress in the elucidation and characterization of the pathway (mainly by genetic(More)
The biosynthesis of isoprenoids in plant cells occurs from precursors produced in the cytosol by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and in the plastid by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, but little is known about the mechanisms coordinating both pathways. Evidence of the importance of sugar signaling for such coordination in Arabidopsis thaliana is(More)
Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a widely used anticancer isoprenoid produced by the secondary metabolism of yew (Taxus sp.) trees. However, only limited amounts of Taxol or related metabolites (taxoids) can be obtained from the currently available sources. In this work we have taken the first step toward genetically engineering the biosynthesis of taxoids in(More)
In climacteric fruit-bearing species, the onset of fruit ripening is marked by a transient rise in respiration rate and autocatalytic ethylene production, followed by rapid deterioration in fruit quality. In non-climacteric species, there is no increase in respiration or ethylene production at the beginning or during fruit ripening. Melon is unusual in(More)
Plants synthesize an astonishing diversity of isoprenoids, some of which play essential roles in photosynthesis, respiration, and the regulation of growth and development. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol(More)
The complex mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes that comprises oleoresin provides the primary defense of conifers against bark beetles and their associated fungal pathogens. Monoterpene synthases produce the turpentine fraction of oleoresin, which allows mobilization of the diterpene resin acid component (rosin) and is also toxic toward(More)
Long-lived conifer trees depend on both constitutive and induced defenses for resistance against a myriad of potential pathogens and herbivores. In species of spruce (Picea spp.), several of the late events of pathogen-, insect-, or elicitor-induced defense responses have previously been characterized at the anatomical, biochemical, transcriptome, and(More)