Michael A. Pfaller

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Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of mycosis-associated mortality in the United States. We examined data from the National Center for Health Statistics and reviewed recent literature in order to update the epidemiology of IC. IC-associated mortality has remained stable, at approximately 0.4 deaths per 100,000 population, since 1997, while(More)
Nosocomial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality. In this study, concurrent surveillance for nosocomial bloodstream infections at 49 hospitals over a 3-year period detected >10,000 infections. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 64% of cases, gram-negative organisms accounted for 27%, and 8% were caused by fungi. The most(More)
BACKGROUND Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care setting, and the epidemiology of Candida infection is changing. METHODS Clinical data from patients with candidemia were extracted from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance database, a comprehensive registry that collects information regarding invasive(More)
Between January 1997 and December 1999, bloodstream isolates from 15,439 patients infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 6350 patients infected with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CoNS) were referred by SENTRY-participating hospitals in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region. S. aureus was found to be(More)
To assess risk factors for development of candidal blood stream infections (CBSIs), a prospective cohort study was performed at 6 sites that involved all patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) for >48 h over a 2-year period. Among 4276 such patients, 42 CBSIs occurred (9.82 CBSIs per 1000 admissions). The overall incidence was 0.98(More)
The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii,(More)
A second high-frequency switching system was identified in selected pathogenic strains in the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. In the characterized strain WO-1, cells switched heritably, reversibly, and at a high frequency (approximately 10(-2] between two phenotypes readily distinguishable by the size, shape, and color of colonies formed on agar at 25(More)
The frequency of invasive mycoses due to opportunistic fungal pathogens has increased significantly over the past two decades (35, 74, 83, 88, 89, 101, 106). This increase in infections is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality (33, 50, 108) and is directly related to increasing patient populations at risk for the development of serious fungal(More)
Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of(More)
We reexamined the attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia 15 years after a retrospective cohort study performed at our hospital demonstrated an attributable mortality of 38%. For all episodes of nosocomial candidemia between 1 July 1997 and 30 June 2001, we matched control patients with case patients by age, sex, date of hospital admission,(More)