Michael A. O’Donnell

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To provide an update on the use of interferon (IFN) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A literature review of intravesical IFN was performed. In vitro evidence suggested that IFN combined with BCG may have a synergistic effect on the immune response, and treatment regimens with IFN have used reduced BCG dosage in an attempt to(More)
For bladder cancer, intravesical chemo/immunotherapy is widely used as adjuvant therapies after surgical transurethal resection, while systemic therapy is typically reserved for higher stage, muscle-invading, or metastatic diseases. The goal of intravesical therapy is to eradicate existing or residual tumors through direct cytoablation or immunostimulation.(More)
Despite the signiWcant activity of bacillus CalmetteGuerin (BCG) on superWcial bladder cancer, most patients eventually relapse. Even in the case of carcinoma in situ (CIS), where BCG is the undisputed superior intravesical agent, after up to 2 cycles of BCG therapy only 46.7% of all patients are disease free at 3.6 years median follow-up [1]. In countries(More)
Objective: To create the first data-driven definition for those unlikely to benefit from further BCG treatment. Materials andMethods:The database created for the Phase 2 BCG-Interferon2B (IFN) study was queried and BCG failure patients were identified (n= 334). Full study protocols have previously been published. Separate models were constructed for(More)
Bladder cancer is the ninth-most prevalent cancer worldwide. Most patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder present with non-muscle-invasive disease and are treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy. Many of these patients experience disease recurrence after BCG failure. Radical cystectomy is the recommended treatment for(More)
The proper induction of cellular immunity is required for effective bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy of bladder cancer. It has been known that BCG stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) leads to the generation of effector cells cytotoxic to bladder cancer cells in vitro. To improve BCG therapy, we previously developed(More)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a proven and valuable adjunct to transurethral resection (TUR) for decreasing recurrence and progression of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The European Association of Urology (EAU) and American Urological Association (AUA) have similar recommendations for induction and maintenance treatment in patients based on(More)
Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a highly effective treatment for carcinoma in situ of the bladder, as well as high-risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Despite over 30 years of clinical experience with BCG, the therapy’s mechanism has remained enigmatic. Observations regarding the role(More)
 Although immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is an established adjuvant treatment for malignant melanoma, the mechanism of its role in this process is unclear. To investigate the possible contribution of tumor-inhibitory cytokines induced by BCG, B16F10 melanoma cell growth in culture was assessed in response to purified cytokines and(More)
Background: Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached “visible” size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized.(More)