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To provide an update on the use of interferon (IFN) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A literature review of intravesical IFN was performed. In vitro evidence suggested that IFN combined with BCG may have a synergistic effect on the immune response, and treatment regimens with IFN have used reduced BCG dosage in an attempt to(More)
For bladder cancer, intravesical chemo/immunotherapy is widely used as adjuvant therapies after surgical transurethal resection, while systemic therapy is typically reserved for higher stage, muscle-invading, or metastatic diseases. The goal of intravesical therapy is to eradicate existing or residual tumors through direct cytoablation or immunostimulation.(More)
Despite the signiWcant activity of bacillus CalmetteGuerin (BCG) on superWcial bladder cancer, most patients eventually relapse. Even in the case of carcinoma in situ (CIS), where BCG is the undisputed superior intravesical agent, after up to 2 cycles of BCG therapy only 46.7% of all patients are disease free at 3.6 years median follow-up [1]. In countries(More)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective intravesical therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer but will fail in up to 40% of patients. The ability to identify patients who are least likely to respond to further BCG therapy allows urologists to pursue secondary treatments more likely to convey a recurrence or survival benefit to the(More)
Bladder cancer is the ninth-most prevalent cancer worldwide. Most patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder present with non-muscle-invasive disease and are treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy. Many of these patients experience disease recurrence after BCG failure. Radical cystectomy is the recommended treatment for(More)
BACKGROUND Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common cancer affecting many patients in the United States. Nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard for the treatment of high grade upper tract disease or low grade tumors that are not amenable to endoscopic management. Recent reports have shown a decrease in UC recurrence in patients who underwent(More)
The reaction of 2-acetylpyridine with silver(I) tetra-fluorido-borate leads to the discrete title complex, [Ag(C(7)H(7)NO)(2)]BF(4), in the cation of which the Ag atom is coordinated by two 2-acetylpyridine ligands, each of which is N,O-bidentate, albeit with stronger bonding to the N atoms [Ag-N = 2.2018 (15) and 2.2088 (14) Å; Ag-O = 2.5380 (13) and(More)
Objective: To create the first data-driven definition for those unlikely to benefit from further BCG treatment. Materials and Methods: The database created for the Phase 2 BCG-Interferon-␣ 2B (IFN) study was queried and BCG failure patients were identified (n = 334). Full study protocols have previously been published. Separate models were constructed for(More)
 Although immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is an established adjuvant treatment for malignant melanoma, the mechanism of its role in this process is unclear. To investigate the possible contribution of tumor-inhibitory cytokines induced by BCG, B16F10 melanoma cell growth in culture was assessed in response to purified cytokines and(More)
Background: Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached " visible " size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized.(More)