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Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin and suppresses glucagon secretion, inhibits gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing incretin action include degradation-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics), and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4(More)
G lycemic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus has become increasingly complex and, to some extent, controversial, with a widening array of pharmacological agents now available (1–5), mounting concerns about their potential adverse effects and new uncertainties regarding the benefits of intensive glycemic control on macrovascular complications (6–9). Many(More)
BACKGROUND Agonists of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor provide pharmacological levels of GLP-1 activity, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase concentrations of endogenous GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide versus the(More)
BACKGROUND Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide have been shown to improve glycaemic control and reduce bodyweight in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly with liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We did a 26 week, open-label, randomised,(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) to metformin were compared with addition of placebo or glimepiride to metformin in subjects previously treated with oral antidiabetes (OAD) therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this 26-week, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of exenatide on gastric emptying (GE) in type 2 diabetes using scintigraphy. METHODS Seventeen subjects with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized, single-blind, 3-period, crossover study. In each 5-day period, 5 or 10 microg exenatide or placebo was administered subcutaneously BID. Oral antidiabetic treatments(More)
OBJECTIVE Although initially effective, sulfonylureas are associated with poor glycemic durability, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion independent of insulin and may cause fewer of these adverse effects. We compared the(More)
OBJECTIVE The incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts insulinotropic activity in type 2 diabetic patients, whereas glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) no longer does. We studied whether GIP can alter the insulinotropic or glucagonostatic activity of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve patients with(More)
AIM To confirm the superiority, compared with placebo, of adding liraglutide to pre-existing basal insulin analogue ± metformin in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.0-10.0% (53-86 mmol/mol)]. METHODS In this 26-week, double-blind, parallel-group study, conducted in clinics or hospitals, 451 subjects were(More)
In 2012, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) published a position statement on the management of hyper-glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (1,2). This was needed because of an increasing array of antihyperglycemic drugs and growing uncertainty regarding their proper selection and(More)