Michael A Nauck

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G lycemic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus has become increasingly complex and, to some extent, controversial, with a widening array of pharmacological agents now available (1–5), mounting concerns about their potential adverse effects and new uncertainties regarding the benefits of intensive glycemic control on macrovascular complications (6–9). Many(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin and suppresses glucagon secretion, inhibits gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing incretin action include degradation-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics), and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4(More)
Abbreviations ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation AGI α-Glucosidase inhibitor CAD Coronary artery disease CKD Chronic kidney disease CVD Cardiovascular disease DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase IV GIP Glucose-dependent insulinotropic(More)
In 2012, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) published a position statement on the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (1,2). This was needed because of an increasing array of antihyperglycemic drugs and growing uncertainty regarding their proper selection and(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) to metformin were compared with addition of placebo or glimepiride to metformin in subjects previously treated with oral antidiabetes (OAD) therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this 26-week, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled,(More)
BACKGROUND Agonists of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor provide pharmacological levels of GLP-1 activity, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase concentrations of endogenous GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide versus the(More)
In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in(More)
Integrated incremental immunoreactive insulin and connecting peptide responses to an oral glucose load of 50 g and an “isoglycaemic” intravenous glucose infusion, respectively, were measured in 14 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and 8 age- and weight-matched metabolically healthy control subjects. Differences between responses to oral and(More)
To fate of exogenous glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I)(7-36) amide was studied in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects using a combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), specific radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereby intact biologically active GLP-I and its metabolites could be(More)
The aim of this 52-week, open-label, non-inferiority trial was to compare the safety and efficacy of exenatide (an incretin mimetic) with that of biphasic insulin aspart. Patients on metformin and a sulfonylurea were randomised to exenatide (n = 253; 5 μg twice daily for 4 weeks, 10 μg thereafter) or biphasic insulin aspart (n = 248; twice-daily doses(More)