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Cell cycle proteins regulate processes as diverse as cell division and cell death. Recently their role in neuronal death has been reported in several models of neurodegeneration. We have reported previously that two key regulators of the cell cycle, the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRb) and transcription factor E2F1, exhibit altered(More)
Disruption of the perineuronal matrix has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. To better understand the extent of matrix disruption during lentiviral encephalitis, we characterized the extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in brains of 12 macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Matrix integrity was assessed by(More)
Uptake resolved by high-speed chronoamperometry on a second-by-second basis has revealed important differences in brain serotonin transporter function associated with genetic variability. Here, we use chronoamperometry to investigate variations in serotonin transport in primary lymphocytes associated with the rhesus serotonin transporter gene-linked(More)
BACKGROUND The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated(More)
We provide phenotypic and functional evidence of premonocytoid dendritic cells (DCs) and preplasmacytoid DCs in blood and of corresponding DC subsets in secondary lymphoid tissue of rhesus monkeys. Subsets were identified and sorted by 4-color flow cytometry using antihuman monoclonal antibodies cross-reactive with rhesus monkey. To mobilize pre-DC subsets,(More)
The human serotonin transporter (SERT) gene possesses a 43-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion promoter polymorphism, the h5-HTTLPR. Genotype at this locus correlates with variation in anxiety-related personality traits and risk for major depressive disorder in many studies. Yet, the complex effects of the h5-HTTLPR, in combination with closely associated(More)
Neurodegeneration observed in lentiviral-associated encephalitis has been linked to viral-infected and -activated central nervous system macrophages. We hypothesized that lentivirus, macrophages, or both lentivirus and macrophages within distinct microenvironments mediate synaptic damage. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model,(More)
Immunotherapies that induce durable immune control of chronic HIV infection may eliminate the need for life-long dependence on drugs. We investigated a DNA vaccine formulated with a novel genetic adjuvant that stimulates immune responses in the blood and gut for the ability to improve therapy in rhesus macaques chronically infected with SIV. Using the(More)
Ag-specific CD4(+) Th cells play a key role in the development, maturation, and maintenance of pathogen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. To define the fine specificity of broadly reactive Th responses associated with mature immunity in a lentiviral system, we analyzed peptide-specific Th responses in eight macaques chronically infected with a(More)
Lentiviral encephalitis has been hypothesized to be associated with altered monocyte migration into the brain. CD14(hi)/CD16(lo) and CD14(lo)/CD16(hi) monocytes were expanded during acute infection; however, this expansion was not unique or greater in macaques that developed encephalitis. The proportion of monocytes that expressed CD62L, HLA-DR, CD16, CD64,(More)