Michael A. Moskowitz

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Brain injury following transient or permanent focal cerebral ischaemia (stroke) develops from a complex series of pathophysiological events that evolve in time and space. In this article, the relevance of excitotoxicity, peri-infarct depolarizations, inflammation and apoptosis to delayed mechanisms of damage within the peri-infarct zone or ischaemic(More)
A pronounced temporal mismatch was observed between the responses of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging and relative cerebral blood flow measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in rat somatosensory cortex after electrical forepaw stimulation. The increase of relative cerebral blood flow after stimulus onset and decrease(More)
The mechanism of apoptosis has been extensively characterized over the past decade, but little is known about alternative forms of regulated cell death. Although stimulation of the Fas/TNFR receptor family triggers a canonical 'extrinsic' apoptosis pathway, we demonstrated that in the absence of intracellular apoptotic signaling it is capable of activating(More)
Deleterious processes of extracellular proteolysis may contribute to the progression of tissue damage after acute brain injury. We recently showed that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) knock-out mice were protected against ischemic and traumatic brain injury. In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved by focusing on relevant MMP-9 substrates in(More)
This study reports the first measurement of the relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (rCMRO(2)) during functional brain activation with sufficient temporal resolution to address the dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI signal. During rat forepaw stimulation, rCMRO(2) was determined in somatosensory cortex at 3-sec intervals,(More)
A method for dynamic, high-resolution cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging is presented in this article. By illuminating the cortex with laser light and imaging the resulting speckle pattern, relative CBF images with tens of microns spatial and millisecond temporal resolution are obtained. The regional CBF changes measured with the speckle technique are(More)
NATURE REVIEWS | NEUROSCIENCE VOLUME 4 | MAY 2003 | 399 Stroke, a brain attack, is the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Worldwide, about 5.5 million people died from stroke in 1999 — approximately 10% of all deaths. There are more than 3.5 million survivors in the United States alone, and the disease remains a major cause of disability. In(More)
Mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) is a phenomenon induced by high levels of matrix calcium and is characterized by the opening of the PT pore (PTP). Activation of the PTP results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, expansion of the matrix, and rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Consequently, PT has been implicated in both(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been suggested to underlie migraine visual aura. However, it has been challenging to test this hypothesis in human cerebral cortex. Using high-field functional MRI with near-continuous recording during visual aura in three subjects, we observed blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes that demonstrated(More)
This review focuses on mechanisms and emerging concepts that drive the science of stroke in a therapeutic direction. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, growing evidence has led to the realization that the biological processes underlying stroke are driven by the interaction of neurons, glia, vascular cells, and matrix components, which(More)