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Optogenetic tools enable examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the study of how different synapses or pathways interact to encode information in the(More)
Sequence comparisons and a revised classification of the Euglenophyceae were based on 92 new SSU rDNA sequences obtained from strains of Euglena, Astasia, Phacus, Trachelomonas, Colacium, Cryptoglena, Lepocinclis, Eutreptia, Eutreptiella and Tetreutreptia. Sequence data also provided molecular signatures for taxa from genus to class level in the SSU rRNA(More)
All-optical electrophysiology-spatially resolved simultaneous optical perturbation and measurement of membrane voltage-would open new vistas in neuroscience research. We evolved two archaerhodopsin-based voltage indicators, QuasAr1 and QuasAr2, which show improved brightness and voltage sensitivity, have microsecond response times and produce no(More)
BACKGROUND It is commonly accepted that a single primary endosymbiosis gave rise to the photosynthetic organelles of plants, the plastids. Recently, we presented evidence that photosynthetic inclusions, termed "chromatophores," present in the filose thecamoeba Paulinella chromatophora originated from an independent, more recent primary endosymbiotic event.(More)
Paulinella chromatophora is a cercozoan amoeba that contains "chromatophores," which are photosynthetic inclusions of cyanobacterial origin. The recent discovery that chromatophores evolved independently of plastids, underwent major genome reduction, and transferred at least two genes to the host nucleus has highlighted P. chromatophora as a model to infer(More)
The biflagellate unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a classic model organism for the analysis of flagella and their organizers, the basal bodies. In this cell, the two flagella-bearing basal bodies, along with two probasal bodies and an array of fibers and microtubules, form a complex organelle called the basal apparatus. The ultrastructure(More)
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Mamiellophyceae classis nova, a ubiquitous group of largely picoplanktonic green algae comprising scaly and non-scaly prasinophyte unicells, were performed using single and concatenated gene sequence comparisons of the nuclear- and plastid-encoded rRNA operons. The study resolved all major clades within the class,(More)
BACKGROUND Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria of protists, invertebrates and vertebrates, but have not been found to date in photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae and embryophytes). Genes of putative chlamydial origin, however, are present in significant numbers in sequenced genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. It has been suggested that such genes(More)
All extant green plants belong to 1 of 2 major lineages, commonly known as the Chlorophyta (most of the green algae) and the Streptophyta (land plants and their closest green algal relatives). The scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride has an important place in the debate on the origin of green plants. However, there have been conflicting results from(More)
We report the isolation of striated flagellar roots from the Prasinophycean green alga Tetraselmis striata using sedimentation in gradients of sucrose and flotation on gradients of colloidal silica. PAGE in the presence of 0.1% SDS demonstrates that striated flagellar roots are composed of a number of polypeptides, the most predominant one being a protein(More)