Michael A. Lombardi

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Time and frequency standards supply three basic types of information: time-of-day, time interval , and frequency. Time-of-day information is provided in hours, minutes, and seconds, but often also includes the date (month, day, and year). A device that displays or records time-of-day information is called a clock. If a clock is used to label when an event(More)
Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be identified in this document in order to describe an experimental procedure or concept adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the entities, materials, or equipment(More)
Radio controlled clocks have existed for decades, but have become far more common in the United States in recent years, due mainly to the explosion of new products that receive time signals from NIST radio station WWVB. This paper explores the history of radio controlled clocks, how they work, and the types of radio signals that control them. 1.(More)
Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be identified in this document in order to describe an experimental procedure or concept adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the entities, materials, or equipment(More)
Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be identified in this document in order to describe a procedure or concept adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the entities, materials, or equipment are(More)
This book is for the person who needs information about making time and frequency measurements. It is written at a level that will satisfy those with a casual interest as well as laboratory engineers and technicians who use time and frequency every day. It includes a brief discussion of time scales, discusses the roles of the National Institute of Standards(More)