Michael A Kohanski

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IMPORTANCE Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly linked with CRS exacerbations. Little is known about how bacteria activate inflammatory pathways that contribute to CRS. OBJECTIVE To develop an in vitro coculture system to explore how infection with S aureus(More)
BACKGROUND Topical treatments with nasal saline irrigation, topical steroid sprays, or corticosteroid rinses can improve sinonasal symptoms in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the impact of these therapies on commensals (Corynebacterium) and on biofilm pathogens associated with CRS (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas) is not well characterized. (More)
BACKGROUND Bactericidal antibiotics have been shown to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in mammalian cells through mitochondrial dysfunction. This results in oxidative tissue damage that may have negative consequences for long-term antibiotic use. Antibiotics are widely and heavily used in the treatment of acute and chronic sinusitis;(More)
BACKGROUND Off-label use of topical ophthalmologic formulations for treatment of rhinologic disease is cited in recent literature and is anecdotally prevalent among practicing otolaryngologists. Steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs designed for ocular use have subjective clinical efficacy in the nose and sinuses, but their specific effects on the ciliated(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) is released in the airway as a critical component of innate immune defense against invading pathogenic organisms. It is well documented that bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of NO are concentration-dependent. However, few data exist comparing relative susceptibility of common pathogens to NO at physiologic concentrations.(More)
Mucociliary clearance, driven by the engine of ciliary beating, is the primary physical airway defense against inhaled pathogens and irritants. A better understanding of the regulation of ciliary beating and mucociliary transport is necessary for identifying new receptor targets to stimulate improved clearance in airway diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotics are widely and heavily used in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. Bactericidal antibiotics can stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, a proinflammatory response, and cell death in cultured human sinonasal epithelial cells (SNECs). Sulforaphane (SFN) is a potent stimulator of the antioxidant nuclear factor erythroid(More)
Nasal crusting, rhinitis, and sinusitis are presentations of common conditions; however, these can also be the presenting symptoms of an underlying systemic disorder such as an infection, malignancy, or granulomatous disease. Granulomatous diseases with head and neck manifestations include Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and sarcoidosis.(More)
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