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Recently, a novel glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified, cloned, and shown to have potent survival- and growth-promoting activity on fetal rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in cell culture. In this study, we document marked and long-lasting effects on adult rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo after intracranial(More)
INTRODUCTION Immature teeth with open apices treated with conventional nonsurgical root canal treatment often have a poor prognosis as a result of the increased risk of fracture and susceptibility to recontamination. Regenerative endodontics represents a new treatment modality that focuses on reestablishment of pulp vitality and continued root development.(More)
Ultrastructural visualization of the horseradish peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-TMB) reaction product within trigeminal ganglion cells and brain stem axons and terminals following HRP injections into the pulpal chambers of cat teeth is enhanced by utilization of a modified osmication procedure that converts the reaction product to a markedly stable(More)
Glial cell-lined derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to promote survival of developing mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In order to determine if there is a positive effect of GDNF on injured adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons in situ, we have carried out experiments in which a single dose of GDNF was injected into the substantia(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor (TLR4) is expressed in TRPV1 containing trigeminal sensory neurons. In this study, we evaluated whether LPS activates trigeminal neurons, and sensitizes TRPV1 responses via TLR4. To test this novel hypothesis, we first demonstrated that LPS binds to receptors in trigeminal neurons(More)
INTRODUCTION Intracanal disinfection is a crucial step in regenerative endodontic procedures. However, this novel endodontic treatment lacks standardization, and numerous treatment protocols have been reported without knowledge of the effect of disinfection protocols on the survival of stem cells. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, enhances the development of pain and hyperalgesia, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that TNFalpha increases the sensitivity of rat trigeminal neurons to capsaicin via two different mechanisms triggered by either brief or(More)
Post-translational modifications on various receptor proteins have significant effects on receptor activation. For the Transient Receptor Potential family V type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, phosphorylation of certain serine/threonine amino acid residues sensitizes the receptor to activation by capsaicin and heat. Although Protein Kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates TRPV1(More)
Although odontogenic infections are often accompanied by pain, little is known about the potential mechanisms mediating this effect. In this study we tested the hypothesis that trigeminal nociceptive neurons are directly sensitized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from an endodontic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. In vitro studies conducted with(More)
Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in(More)