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Recently, a novel glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified, cloned, and shown to have potent survival- and growth-promoting activity on fetal rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in cell culture. In this study, we document marked and long-lasting effects on adult rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo after intracranial(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor (TLR4) is expressed in TRPV1 containing trigeminal sensory neurons. In this study, we evaluated whether LPS activates trigeminal neurons, and sensitizes TRPV1 responses via TLR4. To test this novel hypothesis, we first demonstrated that LPS binds to receptors in trigeminal neurons(More)
Although odontogenic infections are often accompanied by pain, little is known about the potential mechanisms mediating this effect. In this study we tested the hypothesis that trigeminal nociceptive neurons are directly sensitized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from an endodontic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. In vitro studies conducted with(More)
Ultrastructural visualization of the horseradish peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-TMB) reaction product within trigeminal ganglion cells and brain stem axons and terminals following HRP injections into the pulpal chambers of cat teeth is enhanced by utilization of a modified osmication procedure that converts the reaction product to a markedly stable(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, enhances the development of pain and hyperalgesia, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that TNFalpha increases the sensitivity of rat trigeminal neurons to capsaicin via two different mechanisms triggered by either brief or(More)
Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in the transmission and modulation of primary afferent nociceptive stimuli. In this study, we describe the light microscopic distribution of CGRP immunoreactivity (IR) within the feline trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus of normal adult subjects and in subjects 10 and(More)
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL(More)
Glial cell-lined derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to promote survival of developing mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In order to determine if there is a positive effect of GDNF on injured adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons in situ, we have carried out experiments in which a single dose of GDNF was injected into the substantia(More)