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Recently, a novel glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified, cloned, and shown to have potent survival- and growth-promoting activity on fetal rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in cell culture. In this study, we document marked and long-lasting effects on adult rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo after intracranial(More)
Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in(More)
Ultrastructural visualization of the horseradish peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-TMB) reaction product within trigeminal ganglion cells and brain stem axons and terminals following HRP injections into the pulpal chambers of cat teeth is enhanced by utilization of a modified osmication procedure that converts the reaction product to a markedly stable(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, enhances the development of pain and hyperalgesia, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that TNFalpha increases the sensitivity of rat trigeminal neurons to capsaicin via two different mechanisms triggered by either brief or(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in the transmission and modulation of primary afferent nociceptive stimuli. In this study, we describe the light microscopic distribution of CGRP immunoreactivity (IR) within the feline trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus of normal adult subjects and in subjects 10 and(More)
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors with neurotrophic activity on midbrain dopaminergic neurons and on developing and mature motoneurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. To investigate the extent of GDNF dependency of central and peripheral nervous structures during development, we(More)
Glial cell-lined derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to promote survival of developing mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In order to determine if there is a positive effect of GDNF on injured adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons in situ, we have carried out experiments in which a single dose of GDNF was injected into the substantia(More)
Intraventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rats has been shown to reduce age-related atrophy of central cholinergic neurons and the accompanying memory impairment. Intraventricular administration of NGF is necessary because NGF will not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here we have used a novel carrier system, consisting of NGF(More)