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Recently, a novel glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified, cloned, and shown to have potent survival- and growth-promoting activity on fetal rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in cell culture. In this study, we document marked and long-lasting effects on adult rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo after intracranial(More)
Certain phosphorylation events are tightly controlled by scaffolding proteins such as A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). On nociceptive terminals, phosphorylation of transient receptor potential channel type 1 (TRPV1) results in the sensitization to many different stimuli, contributing to the development of hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the(More)
Post-translational modifications on various receptor proteins have significant effects on receptor activation. For the Transient Receptor Potential family V type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, phosphorylation of certain serine/threonine amino acid residues sensitizes the receptor to activation by capsaicin and heat. Although Protein Kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates TRPV1(More)
A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) is a scaffolding protein that controls protein kinase A- and C-mediated phosphorylation of the transient receptor potential family V type 1 (TRPV1), dictating receptor response to nociceptive stimuli. The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) anchors AKAP150 to the plasma membrane in naive(More)
Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in(More)
Ultrastructural visualization of the horseradish peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-TMB) reaction product within trigeminal ganglion cells and brain stem axons and terminals following HRP injections into the pulpal chambers of cat teeth is enhanced by utilization of a modified osmication procedure that converts the reaction product to a markedly stable(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh) expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, enhances the development of pain and hyperalgesia, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that TNFalpha increases the sensitivity of rat trigeminal neurons to capsaicin via two different mechanisms triggered by either brief or(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in the transmission and modulation of primary afferent nociceptive stimuli. In this study, we describe the light microscopic distribution of CGRP immunoreactivity (IR) within the feline trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus of normal adult subjects and in subjects 10 and(More)
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL(More)