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Retinal ganglion cell axons exit the eye, enter the optic stalk, cross the ventral midline at the optic chiasm, and terminate in the optic tectum of the zebrafish. While in the optic stalk, they grow immediately adjacent to cells expressing the powerful retinal axon repellent slit2. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) is expressed within the(More)
The transcription factors of the Sox family play important roles in diverse developmental processes. A number of genetic studies have established that Sox10 is a major regulator of neural crest formation. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of the Xenopus Sox10 gene. Sox10 mRNA accumulates during gastrulation at the lateral edges of the(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role during normal embryogenesis, however high doses of RA are teratogenic. Retinoic acid receptor-beta 2 (RAR-beta 2) mRNA and protein levels were previously demonstrated to undergo rapid elevation in susceptible tissues after treatment with teratogenic doses of RA. In this report we compared the effects of a number of(More)
Mutations in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (rb1) cause both sporadic and familial forms of childhood retinoblastoma. Despite its clinical relevance, the roles of rb1 during normal retinotectal development and function are not well understood. We have identified mutations in the zebrafish space cadet locus that lead to a premature truncation of(More)
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert(More)
Vitamin A (retinol), its metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA), and many synthetic analogs (retinoids) express variable potencies as teratogens. Although biological activities of retinoids are mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), it is not known if any of these receptors mediate teratogenicity, and if the potency also(More)
Cathepsin K plays a key role in bone resorption. We provide the first evidence that osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), a critical pro-resorptive cytokine, acutely stimulates the expression of cathepsin K in osteoclasts. We used in situ RT-PCR and real time quantitative RT-PCR to analyze cathepsin K gene expression. OPGL enhanced cathepsin K mRNA levels in(More)
An excess of retinoic acid (RA) in the mouse embryo in utero produces hypochondrogenesis and severe limb bone deformities. Since one of the RA receptors--RAR-beta 2, is specifically induced in the limb bud cells upon treatment of embryos with teratogenic doses of RA, we investigated if this receptor played a role in teratogenesis by regulating the process(More)
We provide the first evidence that the bone marrow-derived cytokine, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), inhibits the formation of bone-forming osteoblasts. We examined both osteoclast and osteoblast formation in primary rat bone marrow cultures. As expected, M-CSF together with osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) markedly accelerated(More)