Michael A. Gilchrist

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Mathematical models of HIV-1 infection can help interpret drug treatment experiments and improve our understanding of the interplay between HIV-1 and the immune system. We develop and analyze an age- structured model of HIV-1 infection that allows for variations in the death rate of productively infected T cells and the production rate of viral particles as(More)
We explore how an infected cell's virion production rate can affect the relative fitness of a virus within a host. We perform an invasion analysis, based on an age-structured model of viral dynamics, to derive the within-host relative viral fitness. We find that for chronic infections, in the absence of trade-offs between viral life history stages, natural(More)
MOTIVATION To identify accurately protein function on a proteome-wide scale requires integrating data within and between high-throughput experiments. High-throughput proteomic datasets often have high rates of errors and thus yield incomplete and contradictory information. In this study, we develop a simple statistical framework using Bayes' law to(More)
There are many biological steps between viral infection of CD4(+) T cells and the production of HIV-1 virions. Here we incorporate an eclipse phase, representing the stage in which infected T cells have not started to produce new virus, into a simple HIV-1 model. Model calculations suggest that the quicker infected T cells progress from the eclipse stage to(More)
Despite the fact that tRNA abundances are thought to play a major role in determining translation error rates, their distribution across the genetic code and the resulting implications have received little attention. In general, studies of codon usage bias (CUB) assume that codons with higher tRNA abundance have lower missense error rates. Using a model of(More)
Natural selection acts on virus populations at two distinct but interrelated levels: within individual hosts and between them. Studies of the evolution of virulence typically focus on selection acting at the epidemiological or between-host level and demonstrate the importance of trade-offs between disease transmission and virulence rates. Within-host(More)
Viruses reproduce by multiplying within host cells. The reproductive fitness of a virus is proportional to the number of offspring it can produce during the lifetime of the cell it infects. If viral production rates are independent of cell death rate, then one expects natural selection will favor viruses that maximize their production rates. However, if(More)
Codon usage bias (CUB) has been documented across a wide range of taxa and is the subject of numerous studies. While most explanations of CUB invoke some type of natural selection, most measures of CUB adaptation are heuristically defined. In contrast, we present a novel and mechanistic method for defining and contextualizing CUB adaptation to reduce the(More)
We present moments and likelihood methods that estimate a DNA substitution rate from a group of closely related sister species pairs separated at an assumed time, and we test these methods with simulations. The methods also estimate ancestral population size and can test whether there is a significant difference among the ancestral population sizes of the(More)