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Cell polarization is essential in a wide range of biological processes such as morphogenesis, asymmetric division, and directed migration. In this study, we show that two tumor suppressor proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and Dlg1-SAP97, are required for the polarization of migrating astrocytes. Activation of the Par6-PKCzeta complex by Cdc42 at(More)
The Rab GTPase family regulates membrane domain organization and vesicular transport pathways. Recent studies indicate that one member of the family, Rab27a, regulates transport of lysosome-related organelles in specialized cells, such as melanosomes and lytic granules. Very little is known about the related isoform, Rab27b. Here we used genetically(More)
Motor proteins such as myosin, dynein and kinesin use the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to produce force or motion, but despite recent progress their molecular mechanism is unknown. The best characterized system is the myosin motor which moves actin filaments in muscle. When an active muscle fibre is rapidly shortened the force first decreases, then(More)
Muscle contraction is driven by a change in shape of the myosin head region that links the actin and myosin filaments. Tilting of the light-chain domain of the head with respect to its actin-bound catalytic domain is thought to be coupled to the ATPase cycle. Here, using X-ray diffraction and mechanical data from isolated muscle fibres, we characterize an(More)
Skeletal muscles power body movement by converting free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. During the landing phase of running or jumping some activated skeletal muscles are subjected to stretch. Upon stretch they absorb body energy quickly and effectively thus protecting joints and bones from impact damage. This is achieved because during(More)
We have measured the rate constant for ATP release from myosin heads of Ca2+-activated, demembranated muscle fibers using the technique of phosphate-water oxygen exchange. Single rabbit psoas fibers were held in an activating solution in [18O]water ([MgATP] = 8 mM, ionic strength = 0.2 M, pH = 7.0, 24 degrees C). After about 20% hydrolysis of ATP, product(More)
Understanding how cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation alters cardiac muscle mechanics is important because it is often altered in cardiac disease. The effect this protein phosphorylation has on muscle mechanics during a physiological range of shortening velocities, during which the heart generates power and performs work, has not(More)
Muscle force results from the interaction of the globular heads of myosin-II with actin filaments. We studied the structure-function relationship in the myosin motor in contracting muscle fibers by using temperature jumps or length steps combined with time-resolved, low-angle X-ray diffraction. Both perturbations induced simultaneous changes in the active(More)
Muscle contraction is driven by a cyclical interaction between the globular head domain of myosin and the actin filaments. We used quick stretches of 5 nm per half sarcomere to synchronize the movements of myosin heads in active single muscle fibres. The intensity of the 14.5 nm X-ray reflection decreased during the stretch, showing that the instantaneous(More)
  • S Y Bershitsky, A K Tsaturyan, O N Bershitskaya, G I Mashanov, P Brown, R Burns +1 other
  • 1997
Muscle force is generated by myosin crossbridges interacting with actin. As estimated from stiffness and equatorial X-ray diffraction of muscle and muscle fibres, most myosin crossbridges are attached to actin during isometric contraction, but a much smaller fraction is bound stereospecifically. To determine the fraction of crossbridges contributing to(More)