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BACKGROUND Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Screening instruments(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the psychometric properties, adaptations, translations, and applications of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), a widely used instrument and diagnostic algorithm for identification of delirium. DESIGN Systematic literature review. SETTING Not applicable. MEASUREMENTS Electronic searches of PubMED, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL,(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent imaging technique that assesses the microstructure of the cerebral white matter (WM) based on anisotropic diffusion (i.e., water molecules move faster in parallel to nerve fibers than perpendicular to them). Fractional anisotropy (FA), which ranges from 0 to 1.0, increases with myelination of WM tracts and is(More)
BACKGROUND Delirium is an acute confusional state that is common, preventable, and life-threatening. OBJECTIVE The authors investigated the phenomenology of delirium severity as measured with the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale among 441 older patients (age 65 and older) admitted with delirium in post-acute care. METHODS Using latent class analysis,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although the cerebellum has not attracted the same degree of attention as cortical areas and the hippocampus in traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature, there is limited structural and functional imaging evidence that the cerebellum is also vulnerable to insult. The cerebellum is emerging as part of a frontocerebellar system that,(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the association between persistent delirium and 1-year mortality in newly admitted postacute care (PAC) facility patients with delirium who were followed regardless of residence. DESIGN Observational cohort study. SETTING Eight greater-Boston skilled nursing facilities specializing in PAC. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred twelve PAC(More)
This investigation had two main objectives: 1) to assess the comparability of volumes determined by operator-controlled image quantification with automated image analysis in evaluating atrophic brain changes related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, and 2) to assess the extent of diffuse structural changes throughout the brain as determined by(More)
While closed head injury frequently results in damage to the frontal and temporal lobes, damage to deep cortical structures, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia, has also been reported. Five deep central structures (hippocampus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate) were examined in 16 children (eight males, eight females; aged(More)
In vivo MRI volumetric analysis enables investigators to evaluate the extent of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, volumetric studies of pediatric TBI are sparse, and there have been no volumetric studies to date in children examining specific subregions of the prefrontal and temporal lobes. In this study, MRI volumetry was used to(More)
Understanding of delirium pathogenesis remains limited despite improved diagnosis, and elucidation of risk factors and prognosis. Major advances in neuroimaging offer the possibility of probing the mechanisms and networks involved in delirium and hence improving understanding of this often devastating syndrome. This review describes the current literature(More)