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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent imaging technique that assesses the microstructure of the cerebral white matter (WM) based on anisotropic diffusion (i.e., water molecules move faster in parallel to nerve fibers than perpendicular to them). Fractional anisotropy (FA), which ranges from 0 to 1.0, increases with myelination of WM tracts and is(More)
This investigation had two main objectives: 1) to assess the comparability of volumes determined by operator-controlled image quantification with automated image analysis in evaluating atrophic brain changes related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, and 2) to assess the extent of diffuse structural changes throughout the brain as determined by(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although the cerebellum has not attracted the same degree of attention as cortical areas and the hippocampus in traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature, there is limited structural and functional imaging evidence that the cerebellum is also vulnerable to insult. The cerebellum is emerging as part of a frontocerebellar system that,(More)
Generalized whole brain volume loss is well documented in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Whether this atrophy occurs in the thalamus and brainstem has not been systematically studied in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative analysis was used to investigate brain volume loss in the thalamus and brainstem in 16 traumatic brain(More)
In vivo MRI volumetric analysis enables investigators to evaluate the extent of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, volumetric studies of pediatric TBI are sparse, and there have been no volumetric studies to date in children examining specific subregions of the prefrontal and temporal lobes. In this study, MRI volumetry was used to(More)
While closed head injury frequently results in damage to the frontal and temporal lobes, damage to deep cortical structures, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia, has also been reported. Five deep central structures (hippocampus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate) were examined in 16 children (eight males, eight females; aged(More)
BACKGROUND Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Screening instruments(More)
BACKGROUND Delirium is an acute confusional state that is common, preventable, and life-threatening. OBJECTIVE The authors investigated the phenomenology of delirium severity as measured with the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale among 441 older patients (age 65 and older) admitted with delirium in post-acute care. METHODS Using latent class analysis,(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and may result in basal ganglia lesions. This study reviewed the literature of carbon monoxide poisoning and basal ganglia lesions and prospectively assessed the prevalence of basal ganglia lesions in a cohort of patients with CO poisoning. RESEARCH DESIGN Literature review and(More)
Atrophy of specific, regional, and generalized brain structures occurs as a result of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) process. Comparing AD patients with histopathological confirmation of the disease at autopsy to those without autopsy but who were clinically diagnosed using the same antemortem criteria will provide further evidence of the utility and accuracy(More)
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