Michael A. Dimyan

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke is a leading cause of long-term motor disability among adults. Present rehabilitative interventions are largely unsuccessful in improving the most severe cases of motor impairment, particularly in relation to hand function. Here we tested the hypothesis that patients experiencing hand plegia as a result of a single, unilateral(More)
Imagining motor acts is a cognitive task that engages parts of the executive motor system. While motor imagery has been intensively studied using neuroimaging techniques, most studies lack behavioral observations. Here, we used functional MRI to compare the functional neuroanatomy of motor execution and imagery using a task that objectively assesses imagery(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and(More)
Activation of motor-related areas has consistently been found during various motor imagery tasks and is regarded as the central mechanism generating motor imagery. However, the extent to which motor execution and imagery share neural substrates remains controversial. We examined brain activity during preparation for and execution of physical or mental(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent work demonstrated that application of peripheral nerve and cortical stimulation independently can induce modest improvements in motor performance in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that combining peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to the paretic hand with anodal direct current(More)
One of the most challenging tasks of the brain is to constantly update the internal neural representations of existing memories. Animal studies have used invasive methods such as direct microfusion of protein inhibitors to designated brain areas, in order to study the neural mechanisms underlying modification of already existing memories after their(More)
Approximately one-third of patients with stroke exhibit persistent disability after the initial cerebrovascular episode, with motor impairments accounting for most poststroke disability. Exercise and training have long been used to restore motor function after stroke. Better training strategies and therapies to enhance the effects of these rehabilitative(More)
Recent anatomical evidence from nonhuman primates indicates that cingulate motor areas (CMAs) play a substantial role in the cortical control of upper facial movement. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy subjects, we examined brain activity associated with volitional eye closure involving primarily the bilateral(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate cortical regions related to voluntary blinking. METHODS Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the facial motor cortex (M1) and the midline frontal region (Fz) in 10 healthy subjects with eyes opened and closed. Motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the orbicularis oculi (OOC), orbicularis oris (OOR), abductor(More)
Motor impairments are a major cause of morbidity and disability after stroke. This article reviews evidence obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that provides new insight into mechanisms of impaired motor control and disability. They briefly discuss the use of TMS in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of poststroke motor disability.(More)