Michael A. Charleston

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The problem of finding least-cost reconstructions of past host/parasite associations, given the phylogenetic histories of a set of host taxa and of their associated parasites, is known to be complex. I provide in this article a new method of implicitly listing all the potentially optimal solutions to the problem, by considering each hypothesised past(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading worldwide cause of liver disease. Here, we use a new model of HCV spread to investigate the epidemic behavior of the virus and to estimate its basic reproductive number from gene sequence data. We find significant differences in epidemic behavior among HCV subtypes and suggest that these differences are largely the(More)
The geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is controversial. Although genetic closeness to Asian primate malarias has been confirmed by phylogenetic analyses, genetic similarities between P. vivax and Plasmodium simium, a New World primate malaria, suggest that humans may have acquired P. vivax from New World(More)
The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylogenies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from the former. We describe the use of reconciled trees to reconstruct the history of a gene tree with respect to a species tree. Reconciled trees allow(More)
The aims of the work were (1) to develop statistical tests to identify whether substitution takes place under a covariotide model in sequences used for phylogenetic inference and (2) to determine the influence of covariotide substitution on phylogenetic trees inferred for photosynthetic and other organisms. (Covariotide and covarion models are ones in which(More)
The association between two or more lineages over evolutionary time is a recurrent theme spanning several different fields within biology, from molecular evolution to coevolution and biogeography. In each `historical association', one lineage is associated with another, and can be thought of as tracking the other over evolutionary time with a greater or(More)
The cophylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimal cost explanations of differences between evolutionary histories of ecologically linked groups of biological organisms. We present a proof that shows that the general problem of reconciling evolutionary histories is NP-complete and provide a sharp boundary where this intractability begins. We(More)
We explore model-based techniques of phylogenetic tree inference exercising Markov invariants. Markov invariants are group invariant polynomials and are distinct from what is known in the literature as phylogenetic invariants, although we establish a commonality in some special cases. We show that the simplest Markov invariant forms the foundation of the(More)
c 0000 American Mathematical Society 1052-1798/00 $1.00 + $.25 per page . We present a method for visualising and quantifying the relationship between a pair of gene and species trees that constructs a third tree termed the reconciled tree. Given a gene tree and a species tree the reconciled tree represents the history of the gene tree embedded within the(More)