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The problem of finding least-cost reconstructions of past host/parasite associations, given the phylogenetic histories of a set of host taxa and of their associated parasites, is known to be complex. I provide in this article a new method of implicitly listing all the potentially optimal solutions to the problem, by considering each hypothesised past(More)
The aims of the work were (1) to develop statistical tests to identify whether substitution takes place under a covariotide model in sequences used for phylogenetic inference and (2) to determine the influence of covariotide substitution on phylogenetic trees inferred for photosynthetic and other organisms. (Covariotide and covarion models are ones in which(More)
The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylogenies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from the former. We describe the use of reconciled trees to reconstruct the history of a gene tree with respect to a species tree. Reconciled trees allow(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading worldwide cause of liver disease. Here, we use a new model of HCV spread to investigate the epidemic behavior of the virus and to estimate its basic reproductive number from gene sequence data. We find significant differences in epidemic behavior among HCV subtypes and suggest that these differences are largely the(More)
The association between two or more lineages over evolutionary time is a recurrent theme spanning several different fields within biology, from molecular evolution to coevolution and biogeography. In each `historical association', one lineage is associated with another, and can be thought of as tracking the other over evolutionary time with a greater or(More)
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the primary etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), one of the most economically important emerging swine diseases worldwide. Virulent PCV2 was first identified following nearly simultaneous outbreaks of PMWS in North America and Europe in the 1990s and has since achieved global distribution.(More)
There is an apparent paradox in our understanding of molecular evolution. Current biochemically based models predict that evolutionary trees should not be recoverable for divergences beyond a few hundred million years. In practice, however, trees often appear to be recovered from much older times. Mathematical models, such as those assuming that sites(More)
Primate lentiviruses (PLV) from closely related primate species have been observed to be more closely related to each other than to PLV from more distantly related primate species. The current explanation for this observation is the codivergence hypothesis; that is, the divergence of a virus lineage results from the divergence of the host lineage. We show(More)
The geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is controversial. Although genetic closeness to Asian primate malarias has been confirmed by phylogenetic analyses, genetic similarities between P. vivax and Plasmodium simium, a New World primate malaria, suggest that humans may have acquired P. vivax from New World(More)