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Several mutations are required for cancer development, and genome sequencing has revealed that many cancers, including breast cancer, have somatic mutation spectra dominated by C-to-T transitions. Most of these mutations occur at hydrolytically disfavoured non-methylated cytosines throughout the genome, and are sometimes clustered. Here we show that the DNA(More)
The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present(More)
This report details correlated electrical, mechanical and magnetic behaviour in BiFeO(3) ceramics doped with 10% Ln (Ln = Sm, Nd) ions on the Bi, or perovskite A, site and synthesized by a sol-gel method. The ceramics exhibit bulk piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties and clear ferroelectric domain patterns through piezoresponse force microscopy.(More)
Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy has been used to characterize elastic and anelastic anomalies in a polycrystalline sample of multiferroic Pb(Fe(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3) (PFN). Elastic softening begins at ~550 K, which is close to the Burns temperature marking the development of dynamical polar nanoregions. A small increase in acoustic loss at ~425 K coincides with(More)
UNLABELLED Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat(More)
Chronic rejection is the leading cause of late graft loss following solid organ transplantation and is characterized by a vasculopathy referred to as allograft arteriosclerosis. While the etiology of allograft arteriosclerosis remains unknown, it has been hypothesized that migration of donor medial smooth muscle cells into the intimal compartment is(More)
Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and activation-induced deaminase (AID) belong to a family of DNA-cytosine deaminases. While A3G targets the last C in a run of C's, AID targets C in the consensus sequence WRC (W is A or T and R is a purine). Guided by the structures of the A3G carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain (A3G-CTD), we identified two potential regions (region 1(More)
APOBEC3G belongs to a family of DNA cytosine deaminases that are involved in the restriction of a broad number of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Prior studies have identified two distinct mechanistic steps in Vif-deficient HIV-1 restriction: packaging into virions and deaminating viral cDNA. APOBEC3A, for example,(More)
Multiple studies have indicated that the TET oxidases and, more controversially, the activation-induced cytidine deaminase/APOBEC deaminases have the capacity to convert genomic DNA 5-methylcytosine (MeC) into altered nucleobases that provoke excision repair and culminate in the replacement of the original MeC with a normal cytosine (C). We show that human(More)